Advertisement

Aves: Immunological Characteristics of Fowls and Ostriches

  • Ke Mei Peng
Chapter

Abstract

Birds are one of the most prevalent animals on Earth, with more than 9700 species widely distributed throughout the world. This chapter discusses the characteristics, morphological structure, and function of avian and ostrich immune systems, as well as the latest research achievements in molecular biology. Although the immune mechanisms of birds and mammals have much in common, birds developed a number of unique characteristics during their evolution. First, unlike mammals, the bird's immune system contains a specialized organ known as the bursa of Fabricius. The thymus mass of birds is also largest during sexual maturity and gradually degenerates with age through atrophia. The lymphatic tissue of the birds is well developed and widely distributed in the heart, lungs, stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas, kidneys, genitals, endocrine system, and other organs of the body. In addition, the bird's large intestine has a special cecal tonsil. The ostrich is the largest bird in the modern world, but it cannot fly because it lacks a developed sternum keel and chest muscle; its pelvis is also closed. Furthermore, the ostrich’s immune system has a small accessory spleen. Some waterfowls, including ducks and geese, have lymph nodes; however, ostriches do not. As will be shown in this chapter, poultry is a very important animal model for the study of underlying immune mechanisms.

Keywords

Poultry Ostrich Immune system Morphology Structure Function Evolution Molecular biology 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author would thank Dr. Song Hui, Xiao Ke, Yang Keli, Haseeb Kahliq and Huang Haibo for their provision of information, and thanks Dr. Professor Juming Zhong, College of Veterinary Medicine, Auburn University, USA, for correcting the English in the manuscript. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation Project of China (numbers 31272517 and 31672504).

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and publication of this work.

References

  1. Andrew E. W (2012) Immunology. Mucosal and body surface defences. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, pp 111–155Google Scholar
  2. Baek A, Park HJ, Na SJ, Dong SS, Joon SM, Yang Y, Young CC (2012) The expression of BAFF in the muscles of patients with dermatomyositis. J Neuroimmunol 249(1-2):96–100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Banchereau J, Francine B, Christophe C, Jean D, Serge L, Yong JL, Bali P, Karolina P (2000) Immunobiology of dendritic cells. Annu Rev Immunol 18:767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Charles QC (2010) Why ostriches cant fly? Live science, animal. https://www.livescience.com/8055-ostriches-fly.html
  5. Cui Z (2015) Veterinary immunology, 2nd edn. China Agricultural Press, Beijing, pp 1–242. in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  6. Cui XW, Li JF, Xiao W, Xuan Y, Tian AY, Xu XZ, Zhang SQ (2012) Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of TNF13b (BAFF) in Japanese sea perch, Lateolabrax japonicus. Int Immunopharmacol 12:34–41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dan WB, Guan ZB, Zhang C, Li BC, Zhang J, Zhang SQ (2007) Molecular cloning, in vitro expression and bioactivity of goose B-cell activating factor. Vet Immunol Immunop 118:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dan WB, Zhang C, Guan ZB, Zhang SQ (2008) The construction of bifunctional fusion proteins consisting of duck BAFF and EGFP. Biotechnol Lett 30(2):221–227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Darrent N (2014) Ratites in trees: the evolution of ostriches and kin, and the repeated evolution of flightlessness (ratite evolution part II). Tetrapot Zoology 5:24Google Scholar
  10. Ema H, Kazuhiro S, Jun S, Azusa M, Yohei M, Mitsujiro O, Hiromitsu N (2005) Quantification of self- renewal capacity in single hematopoietic stem cells from normal and Lnk-deficient mice. Dev Cell 6:907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fu LC, Lin YC, Pham LV, Archito TT, Linda CY, Richard JF (2009) BAFF-R promotes cell proliferation and survival through interaction with IKKβ and NF-κB/c-Rel in the nucleus of normal and neoplastic B-lymphoid cells. Blood 113(19):4627–4636CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Genovese MC, Fleischmann RM, Greenwald M, Satterwhite J, Veenhuizen M, Xie L, Berclaz PY, Myers S, Benichou O (2013) Tabalumab, an anti-BAFF monoclonal antibody in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis with an inadequate response to TNF inhibitors. Ann Rheum Dis 72(9):1461–1468CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Godfrey DI, MacDonald HR, Kronenberg M, Smyth MJ, Van Kaer L (2004) NKT cells: what’s in a name? Nat Rev Immunol 4:231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Guan Z-b, Ji-lin Y, Wen-bing D, Ji-Lin Y, Shuang-Quan Z (2007) Cloning, expression and bioactivity of duck BAFF. Mol Immunol 44:1471–1476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hai-bo H, Xiao K, Lu S, Yang K-l, Ansari AR, Khaliq H, Song H, Zhong J, Liu H-z, Peng K-m (2015) Increased thymic cell turnover under boron stress may bypass TLR3/4 pathway in African Ostrich. PLoS One 10(6):e0129596. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129596 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Härtle S, Margor KE, Göbel TW (2013) Structure and evolution of avian immunoglobulins. Avian Immunol 2:103–120Google Scholar
  17. Haseeb K, Xiao KE, Wu XT, Song H, Liu HZ, Zhong J, Peng KM (2017) Effects of boron supplementation on expression of Hsp70 in the spleen of African ostrich. Biol Trace Elem Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-017-1087-y
  18. Hui S, Peng K-m, Li S-h, Wang Y, Wei L, Tang L (2012) Morphological characterization of the immune organs in ostrich chicks. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 36(2):89–100Google Scholar
  19. Ivan R, Brostoff J, Male D (2001) Immunology, 6th edn. Harcourt Publishers Limited, Mosby, pp 15–45Google Scholar
  20. Ke X (2016) Transcriptomics analysis and mechanistic study of ostrich chick thymus in response to boron stimulation. Ph D. Dissertation. Huazhong Agricultural University. 1–169Google Scholar
  21. Ke X, Ansari AR, Rehman Z u, Khaliq H, Song H, Tang J, Wang J, Wang W, Sun P-P, Zhong J-M, Peng K-M (2015) Effect of boric acid supplementation of ostrich water on the expression of Foxn1 in thymus. Histol Histopathol 30:1367–1378Google Scholar
  22. Keli Y, Xiao K, Huang H, Lu S, Zhong J, Ansari AR, Khaliq H, Song H, Liu H, Peng K (2015) Molecular cloning, expression and bioactivity of B cell activating factor (BAFF) in African ostrich. Int Immunopharmacol 28:686–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Koskela K, Nieminen P, Kohonen P, Salminen H, Lassila O (2004) Chicken B-cell-activating factor: regulator of B-cell survival in the bursa of fabricius. Scand J Immunol 59:449–457CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu YJ (2001) Dendritic cell subsets and lineages, and their functions in innate and adaptive immunity. Cell 106:259CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Min C, He M, Peng K, Liu T, Jin C, Cao W, Wang L, Xiao K (2013) An immunohistochemical study of somatostatin in the stomach and the small intestine of the African ostrich. Tissue Cell 45:363–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Min C, He M, Peng K, Xiao K, Haibo H, Daiyun Z, Xinting Z (2014) Expression of somatostatin and cDNA cloning in the thymus of the African ostrich. Acta Histochem 116:191–196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Mackay F, Schneider P (2009) Cracking the BAFF code. Nat Rev Immunol 9(7):491–502CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Peng KA (2016a) Animal histology and embryology, 2nd edn. High Education Press, Beijing, pp 103–119. in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  29. Peng KB (2016b) Anatomy of the domestic animals and fowls, 3rd edn. High Education Press, Beijing, pp 268–293. in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  30. Piccirillo CA, Shevach EM (2004) Naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ immunoregulatory T cells: central players in the arena of peripheral tolerance. Semin Immunol 16:81CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Prager EM, Wilson AC, Osuga DT, Feeney RE (1976) Evolution of flightless land birds on southern continents: transferrin comparison shows monophyletic origin of ratites. J Mol Evol 8(3):283–294CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Rothenberg EV (2000) Stepwise specification of lymphocyte developmental lineages. Curr Opin Gen Dev 10:370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sai D (2008) General zoology. Science Press, Beijing, pp 52–346. in ChineseGoogle Scholar
  34. Schneider K, Kothlow S, Schneider P, Tardivel A, Göbel T, Kaspers B, Staeheli P (2004) Chicken BAFF-a highly conserved cytokine that mediates B cell survival. Int Immunol 16:139–148CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Shizuru JA, Negrin RS, Weissman IL (2005) Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells: clinical and preclinical regeneration of the hemato-lymphoid system. Annu Rev Med 56:509CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Shun L, Peng K, Gao Q, Xiang M, Liu H, Song H, Yang K, Huang H, Xiao K (2014) Molecular cloning, characterization and tissue distribution of two ostrich β-defensins: AvBD2 and AvBD7. Gene 552:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sofia A, Hans E (2013) Lack of dosage compensation accompanies the arrested stage of sex chromosome evolution in ostriches. Mol Evol 30(4):806–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Song H (2007) Morphological characteristics of immune organs and the pathogenesis of ostrich chicks challenged with chicken NDV. Ph D Dissertation, Huazhong Agricultural University, pp 1–110Google Scholar
  39. Tizard IR (2012) Veterinary immunology, 9th edn. W. B. Saunders Company, New York, pp 1–242Google Scholar
  40. Vincent FB, Morand EF, Mackay F (2012) BAFF and innate immunity: new therapeutic targets for systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunol Cell Biol 90(3):293–303CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang C (2015) Evolutionary analysis of CD1 genes in vertebrates. Ph D Dissertation, China Agricultural University, pp 1–99Google Scholar
  42. Wang JX, Peng KM, Liu HZ, Song H, Chen X, Liu M (2010) Distribution and morphology of argyrophilic cells in the digestive tract of the African ostrich. Tissue Cells 42:65–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang JX, Li P, Peng KM, Jin SHZ (2011) cDNA cloning of ghrelin and ontogeny of ghrelin mRNA expression in the gastrointestinal tract of African ostrich chicks. Regul Pept 167:50–55CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang W, Xiao K, Zheng XT, Zhu DY, Yang Z, Tang J, Sun PP, Wang J, Peng KP (2014) Effects of supplemental boron on growth performance and meat quality in African ostrich chicks. J Agric Food Chem 62:11024–11029CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Xin T, Peng K, Tang J, Wang W, Xiao K, Zhu D, Lu S, Yang K, Wang J, Sun P, Chen M (2014) Effect of supplemental drinking boron on morphology of African ostrich cerebrum. J Anim Vet Adv 13(8):496–502Google Scholar
  46. Xiao W, Long W, Liu G, Sui CL, Guo XR, Tian AY, Ji CB, Cui XW, Zhang SQ (2014) Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of B-cell activating factor (BAFF) in yellow grouper, Epinephelus awoara. Mol Immunol 59:64–70CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang C (2015) Evolution and research on animal molecular. Beijing Press of Science and Technology, Beijing, pp 93–95. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  48. Zheng G (2002) A checklist on the classification and distribution of the birds of the world. Science press, Beijing, pp 1–5. (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ke Mei Peng
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanP. R. China

Personalised recommendations