Advertisement

Students’ Educational Pathways: Aspirations, Decisions, and Constrained Choices Along the Education Lifecourse

  • Michal Kurlaender
  • Jacob Hibel
Chapter
Part of the Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research book series (HSSR)

Abstract

Educational pathways are marked by a series of choices that individuals and their families make that shape students’ development and educational destinations. The education attainment model is defined by a notable tension between individual choice and structural constraints that exist throughout the life course. This chapter synthesizes research on the constrained choices that typify educational pathways from early childhood to adulthood in the U.S. We focus on several areas in the literature in which the tension between individual choice and structural constraints plays out, specifically: educational aspirations, curricular differentiation, and informational barriers and opportunities. Within each of these interconnected areas we describe the dominant theories that buttress the individual determinants model, and the structural or institutional forces that shape the educational attainment process. We also review policy trends that have emerged over the past several decades designed to attenuate structural inequalities in students’ educational pathways.

Keywords

Educational attainment Curricular exposure and participation Undermatching Low-cost interventions Increased ambitions 

References

  1. Adelman, C. (1999). Answers in the toolbox: Academic intensity, attendance patterns, and bachelor’s degree attainment. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Research and Improvement.Google Scholar
  2. Adelman, C. (2006). The toolbox revisited. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Research and Improvement.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, K. L., & Cook, M. A. (1979). The motivational relevance of educational plans: Questioning the conventional wisdom. Social Psychology Quarterly, 42, 202–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allensworth, E., Nomi, T., Montgomery, N., & Lee, V. E. (2009). College preparatory curriculum for all: Academic consequences of requiring algebra and English I for ninth graders in Chicago. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 31(4), 367–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altonji, J. (1995). The effects of high school curriculum on education and labor market outcomes. Journal of Human Resources, 30(3), 409–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnold, K., Fleming, S., DeAnda, M., Castleman, B., & Wartman, K. L. (2009). The summer flood: The invisible gap among low-income students. Thought & Action, 25, 23–24.Google Scholar
  7. Aschaffenburg, K., & Maas, I. (1997). Cultural and educational careers: The dynamics of social reproduction. American Sociological Review, 62, 573–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Attewell, P., & Domina, T. (2008). Raising the bar: Curricular intensity and academic performance. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 30(1), 51–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bailey, M. J., & Dynarski, S. M. (2011). Inequality in postsecondary education. In G. J. Duncan & R. J. Murnane (Eds.), Whither opportunity? Rising inequality, schools, and Children’s life chances (pp. 117–132). New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Bailey, T., Calcagno, J. C., Jenkins, D., Kienzl, G., & Leinbach, T. (2005). The effects of institutional factors on the success of community college students. New York: Community College Research Center.Google Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. (1981). Self-referent thought: A developmental analysis of self-efficacy. In J. H. Flavell & L. Ross (Eds.), Social cognitive development: Frontiers and possible futures (pp. 200–239). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Bandura, A. (1982). The psychology of chance encounters and life paths. American Psychologist, 37(7), 747–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
  15. Barnett, E. A., Bork, R. H., Mayer, A. K., Pretlow, J., Wathington, H. D., & Weiss, M. J. (2012). Bridging the gap: An impact study of eight developmental summer bridge programs in Texas. New York: National Center for Postsecondary Research.Google Scholar
  16. Bassok, D., & Reardon, S. F. (2013). “Academic redshirting” in kindergarten: Prevalence, patterns, and implications. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 35(3), 283–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bean, J. P., & Metzner, B. S. (1985). A conceptual model of nontraditional undergraduate student attrition. Review of Educational Research, 55(4), 485–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bettinger, E., & Long, B. (2009). Addressing the needs of underprepared students in higher education: Does college remediation work? Journal of Human Resources, 44(3), 736–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bettinger, E. P., Long, B. T., Oreopoulos, P., & Sanbonmatsu, L. (2012). The role of application assistance and information in college decisions: Results from the H&R Block FAFSA experiment. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 127(3), 1205–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bettinger, E. P., Boatman, A., & Long, B. T. (2013). Student supports: Developmental education and other academic programs. The Future of Children, 23(1), 93–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Black, S. E., & Sufi, A. (2002). Who goes to college? Differential enrollment by race and family background (NBER Working Paper Series: No. w9310). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  22. Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. (1977). Reproduction in education, society and culture. London: SAGE Publications.Google Scholar
  23. Bowles, S., & Gintis, H. (1976). Schooling in capitalist America: Educational reform and the contradictions of economic life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  24. Bozick, R., & DeLuca, S. (2011). Not making the transition to college: School, work, and opportunities. Social Science Research, 40, 1249–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brint, S., & Karabel, J. (1989). The diverted dream: Community colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America, 1900–1985. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Buchmann, C., & DiPrete, T. A. (2006). The growing female advantage in college completion: The role of family background and academic achievement. American Sociological Review, 71(4), 515–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Camilli, G., Vargas, S., Ryan, S., & Barnett, W. S. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and social development. Teachers College Record, 112(3), 579–620.Google Scholar
  28. Campbell, F. A., & Ramey, C. T. (2010). The Abecedarian Project. In A. J. Reynolds, A. Rolnick, M. M. Englund, & J. Temple (Eds.), Cost effective programs in children’s first decade: A human capital integration (pp. 76–95). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Campbell, F. A., Ramey, C. T., Pungello, E., Sparling, J., & Miller-Johnson, S. (2002). Early childhood education: Young adult outcomes from the Abecedarian Project. Applied Developmental Science, 6(1), 42–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Carnevale, A. P., & Rose, S. J. (2003). Socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and selective college admissions. New York: Century Foundation.Google Scholar
  31. Cascio, E., & Schanzenbach, D. (2016). First in the class? Age and the education production function. Education Finance and Policy, 11(3), 225–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Castleman, B. L., & Page, L. C. (2014a). A trickle or a torrent? Understanding the extent of summer “melt” among college-intending high school graduates. Social Science Quarterly, 95(1), 202–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Castleman, B. L., & Page, L. C. (2014b). Summer melt: Supporting low-income students in the transition from high school to college. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
  34. Castleman, B. L., & Page, L. C. (2015). Summer nudging: Can personalized text messages and peer mentor outreach increase college going among low-income high school graduates? Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 115, 144–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Clotfelter, C. T., Ladd, H. F., & Vigdor, J. L. (2015). The aftermath of accelerating algebra: Evidence from district policy initiatives. Journal of Human Resources, 50(1), 159–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cohen, G. L., Garcia, J., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Apfel, N., & Brzustoski, P. (2009). Recursive processes in self-affirmation: Intervening to close the minority achievement gap. Science, 324(5925), 400–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Coleman, J. S. (1966). The equality of educational opportunity study (EEOS). Washington, DC: United States Department of Education.Google Scholar
  38. College Board. (2017). Trends in Student Aid 2017. Available at: https://trends.collegeboard.org/sites/default/files/2017-trends-student-aid_0.pdf
  39. Collins, R. (1971). Functional and conflict theories of educational stratification. American Sociological Review, 36, 1002–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Collins, R. (1979). The credential society: An historical sociology of education and stratification. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  41. Conger, D., Long, M. C., & Iatarola, P. (2009). Explaining race, poverty, and gender disparities in advanced course-taking. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 28(4), 555–576.Google Scholar
  42. Crosta, P. (2013). Intensity and attachment: How the chaotic enrollment patterns of community college students affect educational outcomes. New York: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  43. Currie, J. (2001). Early childhood education programs. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15(2), 213–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Currie, J., & Thomas, D. (2000). School quality and the longer-term effects of Head Start. Journal of Human Resources, 35(4), 755–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Datar, A. (2006). Does delaying kindergarten entrance give children a Head Start? Economics of Education Review, 25(1), 43–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Datar, A., & Gottfried, M. (2015). School entry age and children’s social-behavioral skills: Evidence from a national longitudinal study of U.S. kindergarteners. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 37(3), 333–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dee, T. S. & Sievertsen, H. (2015). The gift of time? School starting age and mental health (NBER Working Paper Series).Google Scholar
  48. Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(3), 71–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Deil-Amen, R., & DeLuca, S. (2010). The underserved third: How our educational structures populate an educational underclass. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 15, 27–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Deil-Amen, R., & Rosenbaum, J. E. (2003). The social prerequisites of success: Can college structure reduce the need for social know-how? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 586(1), 120–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Dillon, E. W., & Smith, J. A. (2017, January). Determinants of the match between student ability and college quality. Journal of Labor Economics, 35(1), 45–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. DiMaggio, P., & Mohr, J. (1985). Cultural capital, educational attainment, and marital selection. American Journal of Sociology, 90(6), 1231–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. DiPrete, T. A., & Eirich, G. M. (2006). Cumulative advantage as a mechanism for inequality: A review of theoretical and empirical developments. Annual Review of Sociology, 32, 271–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Domina, T. (2009). What works in college outreach: Assessing targeted and schoolwide interventions for disadvantaged students. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 31(2), 127–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Domina, T., Conley, A., & Farkas, G. (2011). The link between educational expectations and effort in the college-for-all era. Sociology of Education, 84(2), 93–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Domina, T., Penner, A. M., Penner, E. K., & Conley, A. (2014). Algebra for all: California’s eighth-grade algebra initiative as constrained curricula. Teachers College Record, 116(8), 1–32.Google Scholar
  57. Domina, T., McEachin, A., Penner, A., & Penner, E. (2015). Aiming high and falling short California’s eighth-grade algebra-for-all effort. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 37(3), 275–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dougherty, K. J. (1994). The contradictory college: The conflicting origins, impacts, and futures of the community college. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  59. Dumais, S. A., & Ward, A. (2010). Cultural capital and first-generation college success. Poetics, 38(3), 245–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., & Sexton, H. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1428–1446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Dweck, C. S., & Elliott, E. S. (1983). Achievement motivation. In P. H. Mussen (Gen. Ed.) & E. M. Hetherington (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (pp. 643–691). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. Dynarski, S., & Scott-Clayton, J. (2006). The cost of complexity in federal student aid: Lessons from optimal tax theory and behavioral economics. National Tax Journal, 59(2), 319–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Eder, D. (1981). Ability grouping as a self-fulfilling prophecy: A micro-analysis of teacher–student interaction. Sociology of Education, 54(3), 151–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Gamoran, A. (1986). Instructional and institutional effects of ability grouping. Sociology of Education, 59(4), 185–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gamoran, A. (1987). The stratification of high school learning opportunities. Sociology of Education, 60(3), 135–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gamoran, A. (1992). Access to excellence: Assignment to honors English classes in the transition from middle to high school. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 14(3), 185–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gamoran, A., & Hannigan, E. C. (2000). Algebra for everyone? Benefits of college-preparatory mathematics for students with diverse abilities in early secondary school. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 22(3), 241–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gamoran, A., Nystrand, M., Berends, M., & LePore, P. C. (1995). An organizational analysis of the effects of ability grouping. American Educational Research Journal, 32(4), 687–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gecas, V., & Schwalbe, M. L. (1983). Beyond the looking-glass self: Social structure and efficacy-based self-esteem. Social Psychology Quarterly, 46(2), 77–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gecas, V., & Schwalbe, M. L. (1986). Parental behavior and adolescent self-esteem. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48(1), 37–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gecas, V., & Seff, M. A. (1989). Social class, occupational conditions, and self-esteem. Sociological Perspectives, 32(3), 353–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gecas, V., & Seff, M. A. (1990). Social class and self-esteem: Psychological centrality, compensation, and the relative effects of work and home. Social Psychology Quarterly, 53(2), 165–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Goldin, C. D., & Katz, L. F. (2009). The race between education and technology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Goldrick-Rab, S. (2006). Following their every move: An investigation of social-class differences in college pathways. Sociology of Education, 79(1), 67–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gonzalez, K. P., Stoner, C., & Jovel, J. E. (2003). Examining the role of social capital in access to college for Latinas: Toward a college opportunity framework. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 2(2), 146–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gormley, W. T., Jr., Gayer, T., Phillips, D., & Dawson, B. (2005). The effects of universal pre-K on cognitive development. Developmental Psychology, 41(6), 872.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Goyette, K. A. (2008). College for some to college for all: Social background, occupational expectations, and educational expectations over time. Social Science Research, 37(2), 461–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Grodsky, E., & Jones, M. T. (2007). Real and imagined barriers to college entry: Perceptions of cost. Social Science Research, 36(2), 745–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Grodsky, E., & Riegle-Crumb, C. (2010). Those who choose and those who don’t: Social background and college orientation. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 627(1), 14–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hallinan, M. T. (1994). Tracking: From theory to practice. Sociology of Education, 67(2), 79–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hamilton, L. (2016). Parenting to a degree. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Harding, D. J. (2010). Living the drama: Community, conflict, and culture among inner-city boys. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  83. Harding, D. J. (2011). Rethinking the cultural context of schooling decisions in disadvantaged neighborhoods from deviant subculture to cultural heterogeneity. Sociology of Education, 84(4), 322–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Hays, S. (1994). Structure and agency and the sticky problem of culture. Sociological Theory, 12(1), 57–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Heckman, J. J., & LaFontaine, P. (2006). Bias-corrected estimates of GED returns. Journal of Labor Economics, 24(3), 661–700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Heckman, J. J., Moon, S. H., Pinto, R., Savelyev, P. A., & Yavitz, A. (2010). The rate of return to the HighScope Perry Preschool Program. Journal of Public Economics, 94(1), 114–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hoekstra, M. (2009). The effect of attending the flagship state university on earnings: A discontinuity-based approach. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 91(4), 717–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Holland, M. M., & DeLuca, S. (2016). “Why wait years to become something?” Low-income African American youth and the costly career search in for-profit trade schools. Sociology of Education, 89(4), 261–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hong, G., & Nomi, T. (2012). Weighting methods for assessing policy effects mediated by peer change. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 5(3), 261–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Horn, L. J., Chen, X., & Chapman, C. (2003). Getting ready to pay for college: What students and their parents know about the cost of college tuition and what they are doing to find out. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.Google Scholar
  91. Howell, J., Kurlaender, M., & Grodsky, E. (2010). Postsecondary preparation and remediation: Examining the effect of the early assessment program at California State University. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 29(4), 726–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hoxby, C., & Avery, C. (2013). The missing “one-offs”: The hidden supply of high-achieving, low-income students. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 2013(1), 1–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hoxby, C., & Turner, S. (2015). What high-achieving low-income students know about college. American Economic Review, 105(5), 514–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Huang, F. L. (2015). Investigating the prevalence of academic redshirting using population-level data. AERA Open, 1(2), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ingersoll, R. M. (1999). The problem of underqualified teachers in American secondary schools. Educational Researcher, 28(2), 26–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Jackson, J. S. (2015). Does an early college readiness signal discourage college application and enrollment? Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 8(3), 380–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Jacob, B., & Wilder-Linkow, T. (2011). Educational expectations and attainment. In G. J. Duncan & R. J. Murnane (Eds.), Whither opportunity? Rising inequality and the uncertain life chances of low-income children (pp. 133–163). New York: Russell Sage Press.Google Scholar
  98. Kalogrides, D., Loeb, S., & Béteille, T. (2013). Systematic sorting teacher characteristics and class assignments. Sociology of Education, 86(2), 103–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kao, G., & Tienda, M. (1998). Educational aspirations of minority youth. American Journal of Education, 106, 349–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kelly, S. (2009). The Black–White gap in mathematics course taking. Sociology of Education, 82(1), 47–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Kena, G., Musu-Gillette, L., Robinson, J., Wang, X., Rathbun, A., Zhang, J., & Velez, E. D. V. (2015). The condition of education 2015. NCES 2015-144. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  102. Kerckhoff, A., & Glennie, E. (1999). The Matthew effect in American education. Research in Sociology of Education and Socialization, 12(1), 35–66.Google Scholar
  103. King, J. E. (2004). Missed opportunities: Students who do not apply for financial aid. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.Google Scholar
  104. Klopfenstein, K., & Thomas, M. K. (2009). The link between advanced placement experience and early college success. Southern Economic Journal, 75(3), 873–891.Google Scholar
  105. Kurlaender, M., & Howell, J. (2012). Academic preparation for college: Evidence on the importance of academic rigor in high school. Report of the College Board. Available at http://advocacy.collegeboard.org/sites/default/files/affinity-network-academic-preparation-college.pdf
  106. Kurlaender, M., Carrell, S., & Jackson, J. (2016). The promises and pitfalls of measuring community college quality. The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 2(1), 174–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Labaree, D. F. (1997). Public goods, private goods: The American struggle over educational goals. American Educational Research Journal, 34(1), 39–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lamont, M., & Lareau, A. (1988). Cultural capital: Allusions, gaps and glissandos in recent theoretical developments. Sociological Theory, 6, 153–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Lareau, A. (2000). Home Advantage (2nd ed.). Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  110. Lareau, A. (2011). Unequal childhoods: Class, race, and family life (2nd ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  111. Lareau, A., & Goyette, K. (Eds.). (2014). Choosing homes, choosing schools. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  112. Lareau, A., & Weininger, E. B. (2003). Cultural capital in educational research: A critical assessment. Theory and society, 32(5–6), 567–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lee, V. E., & Ready, D. D. (2009). U.S. high school curriculum: Three phases of contemporary research and reform. The Future of Children, 19(1), 135–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Lee, J., & Zhou, M. (2015). The Asian American achievement paradox. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  115. Levine, P. B., & Zimmerman, D. J. (1995). The benefit of additional high-school math and science classes for young men and women. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 13(2), 137–149.Google Scholar
  116. Liang, J. H., Heckman, P. E., & Abedi, J. (2012). What do the California standards test results reveal about the movement toward eighth-grade algebra for all? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(3), 328–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Lincove, J., & Painter, G. (2006). Does the age that children start kindergarten matter? Evidence of long-term educational and social outcomes. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 28(2), 153–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Long, M., Conger, D., & Iatrola, P. (2009). Explaining gaps in readiness for college-level math: The role of high school courses. Education Finance and Policy, 4(1), 1–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Long, B. T. (2010). Financial aid: A key to community college student success. Paper presented at the White House summit on Community Colleges, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  120. Long, M. C., Conger, D., & Iatarola, P. (2012). Effects of high school course-taking on secondary and postsecondary success. American Educational Research Journal, 49(2), 285–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Loveless, T. (2008). The misplaced math student: Lost in eighth-grade algebra. The 2008 Brown Center report on American education. Special release. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
  122. Mann, A., & Diprete, T. A. (2013). Trends in gender segregation in the choice of science and engineering majors. Social Science Research, 42(6), 1519–1541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Marcussen, K., Ritter, C., & Safron, D. J. (2004). The role of identity salience and commitment in the stress process. Sociological Perspectives, 47(3), 289–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Marsh, H. W., Walker, R., & Debus, R. (1991). Subject-specific components of academic self-concept and self-efficacy. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 16(4), 331–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. McDonough, P. M. (1997). Choosing colleges: How social class and schools structure opportunity. Albany: Suny Press.Google Scholar
  126. McKinney, L., & Roberts, T. (2012). The role of community college financial aid counselors in helping students understand and use financial aid. Community College Journal of Research & Practice, 36(10), 761–774.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Mishel, L., & Roy, J. (2006). Accurately assessing high school graduation rates. Phi Delta Kappan, 88(4), 287–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M. M., & Maczuga, S. (2016). Science achievement gaps begin very early, persist, and are largely explained by modifiable factors. Educational Researcher, 45(1), 18–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Moses, R., & Cobb, C. E. (2002). Radical equations: Civil rights from Mississippi to the algebra project. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  130. Murdock, T. B., Anderman, L. H., & Hodge, S. A. (2000). Middle-grade predictors of students’ motivation and behavior in high school. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15(3), 327–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. The Elementary School Journal, 84(2), 113–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. National Center for Education Statistics. (2016a). Digest of Education Statistics 2014 (NCES 2016–006). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  133. National Center for Education Statistics. (2016b). Digest of education statistics 2015 (NCES 2016–014). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  134. Nomi, T. (2012). The unintended consequences of an algebra-for-all policy on high-skill students: Effects on instructional organization and students’ academic outcomes. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 34(4), 489–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Nomi, T., & Allensworth, E. M. (2013). Sorting and supporting: Why double-dose algebra led to better test scores but more course failures. American Educational Research Journal, 50(4), 756–788.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Oakes, J. (1985). Keeping track: How schools structure inequality. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  137. Oakes, J. (1990). Multiplying inequalities: The effects of race, social class, and tracking on opportunities to learn mathematics and science. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
  138. Oakes, J. (2005). Keeping track: How schools structure inequality. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  139. Owens, T. J., & Serpe, R. T. (2003). The role of self-esteem in family identity salience and commitment among Blacks, Latinos, and Whites. In P. J. Burke, T. J. Owens, R. T. Serpe, & P. A. Thoits (Eds.), Advances in identity theory and research (pp. 85–102). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Pallas, A. M., Entwisle, D. R., Alexander, K. L., & Stluka, M. F. (1994). Ability-group effects: Instructional, social, or institutional? Sociology of Education, 67(1), 27–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Papay, J. Murnane, R., & Willett, J. (2011). How performance information affects human-capital investment decisions: The impact of test-score labels on educational outcomes (NBER Working Paper Series: No. 17120). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  142. Perez, P. A., & McDonough, P. M. (2008). Understanding Latina and Latino college choice: A social capital and chain migration analysis. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 7(3), 249–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Perna, L. W. (2000). Differences in the decision to attend college among African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites. Journal of Higher Education, 71, 117–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Perna, L. (2007). Understanding high school students’ willingness to borrow to pay college prices. Research in Higher Education, 49(7), 589–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Perna, L. W., & Titus, M. A. (2005). The relationship between parental involvement as social capital and college enrollment: An examination of racial/ethnic group differences. Journal of Higher Education, 76(5), 485–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Planty, M., Bozick, R., & Ingels, S. J. (2006). Academic pathways, preparation, and performance: A descriptive overview of the transcripts from the high school graduating class of 2003-TAB. NCES 2007-316. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  147. Porter, A. (1989). A curriculum out of balance: The case of elementary school mathematics. Educational Researcher, 18(5), 9–15.Google Scholar
  148. Provasnik, S. & Planty, M. (2008). Community colleges: Special supplement to the condition of education 2008. NCES 2008–033. National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  149. Puma, M., Bell, S., Cook, R., Heid, C., Shapiro, G., Broene, P., & Ciarico, J. (2010). Head start impact study. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Administration for Children & Families.Google Scholar
  150. Reyes, O., & Jason, L. A. (1993). Pilot study examining factors associated with academic success for Hispanic high school students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22(1), 57–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Reynolds, A., Temple, J., Ou, S., Arteaga, I., & White, B. (2011). School-based early childhood education and age-28 well-being: Effects by timing, dosage and subgroups. Science, 333(6040), 36–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Reynolds, J. R., & Pemberton, J. (2001). Rising college expectations among youth in the United States: A comparison of the 1979 and 1997 NLSY. Journal of Human Resources, 36(4), 703–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Reynolds, J., Stewart, M., MacDonald, R., & Sischo, L. (2006). Have adolescents become too ambitious? High school seniors’ educational and occupational plans, 1976 to 2000. Social Problems, 53(2), 186–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Riegle-Crumb, C., & Grodsky, E. (2010). Racial-ethnic differences at the intersection of math course-taking and achievement. Sociology of Education, 83(3), 248–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Riegle-Crumb, C., King, B., Grodsky, E., & Muller, C. (2012). The more things change, the more they stay the same? Prior achievement fails to explain gender inequality in entry into STEM college majors over time. American Educational Research Journal, 49(6), 1048–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Riley, R. W. (1997). Mathematics equals opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  157. Rose, H., & Betts, J. R. (2004). The effect of high school courses on earnings. Review of Economics and Statistics, 86(2), 497–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Rosenbaum, J. (2001). Beyond college for all: Career paths for the forgotten half. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  159. Rosenbaum, J. E. (2011). The complexities of college for all: Beyond fairy-tale dreams. Sociology of Education, 84(2), 113–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Rosenbaum, J. E., & Binder, A. (1997). Do employers really need more educated youth? Sociology of Education, 70(1), 68–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Sacerdote, B. (2001). Peer effects with random assignment: Results for Dartmouth roommates. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116(2), 681–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sandefur, G. D., Meier, A. M., & Campbell, M. E. (2006). Family resources, social capital, and college attendance. Social Science Research, 35(2), 525–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Schneider, B., & Stevenson, D. (1999). The ambitious generation. Educational Leadership, 57(4), 22–25.Google Scholar
  164. Schneider, B. L., & Stevenson, D. (2000). The ambitious generation: America’s teenagers, motivated but directionless. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  165. Schneider, B., Swanson, C. B., & Riegle-Crumb, C. (1997). Opportunities for learning: Course sequences and positional advantages. Social Psychology of Education, 2(1), 25–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Schoenfeld, A. H. (2004). The math wars. Educational Policy, 18(1), 253–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Schunk, D. H. (1991). Self-efficacy and academic motivation. Educational Psychologist, 26(3–4), 207–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Schweinhart, L. J., Montie, J., Xiang, Z., Barnett, W. S., Belfield, C. R., & Nores, M. (2005). Lifetime effects: The High/Scope Perry preschool study through age 40. Ypsilanti: High/Scope Press.Google Scholar
  169. Scott-Clayton, J. (2012). Information constraints and financial aid policy (NBER Working Paper Series: No. 17811). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  170. Settersten, R. A., Jr., & Ray, B. (2010). What’s going gn with young people today? The long and twisting path to adulthood. The Future of Children, 20(1), 19–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sewell, W. H. (1992). A theory of structure: Duality, agency, and transformation. American Journal of Sociology, 98(1), 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Sewell, W. H., & Hauser, R. M. (1975). Education, occupation, and earnings: Achievement in the early career. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  173. Sewell, W. H., Haller, A. O., & Portes, A. (1969). The educational and early occupational attainment process. American Sociological Review, 34(1), 82–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Sherman, D. K., & Cohen, G. L. (2006). The psychology of self-defense: Self-affirmation theory. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 183–242). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  175. Slavin, R. E. (1987). Ability grouping and student achievement in elementary schools: A best-evidence synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 57(3), 293–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Smith, J. B. (1996). Does an extra year make any difference? The impact of early access to algebra on long-term gains in mathematics attainment. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 18(2), 141–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Snyder, T. & Dillow, S. (2013). Digest of education statistics. NCES 2015-011. National Center for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  178. Sørensen, A. B. (1970). Organizational differentiation of students and educational opportunity. Sociology of Education, 43(4), 355–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Sørensen, A. B., & Hallinan, M. T. (1986). Effects of ability grouping on growth in academic achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 23(4), 519–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Spence, M. (1973). Job market signaling. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 87(3), 355–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Stanton-Salazar, R. (1997). A social capital framework for understanding the socialization of racial minority children and youths. Harvard Educational Review, 67(1), 1–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (2001). Manufacturing hope and despair: The school and kin support networks of U.S.-Mexican youth. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  183. Steele, C. M. (1988). The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 261–302). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  184. Stevens, M. L. (2007). Creating a class: College admissions and the education of elites. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  185. Stiglitz, J. E. (1975). The theory of “screening,” education, and the distribution of income. The American Economic Review, 65(3), 283–300.Google Scholar
  186. Taniguchi, H., & Kaufman, G. (2005). Degree completion among nontraditional college students. Social Science Quarterly, 86(4), 912–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Terriquez, V., & Gurantz, O. (2014). Financial challenges in emerging adulthood and students’ decisions to stop out of college. Emerging Adulthood, 3(3), 204–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Tierney, W. G., & Venegas, K. M. (2006). Fictive kin and social capital: The role of peer groups in applying and paying for college. American Behavioral Scientist, 49(12), 1687–1702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Xie, Y., & Shaumann, S. A. (2003). Women in science: Career processes and outcomes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  190. Yeager, D. S., & Walton, G. M. (2011). Social-psychological interventions in education: They’re not magic. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 267–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Yonezawa, S. (2013). Increasing federal financial aid access for California community college students. PATHWAYS to Postsecondary Success.Google Scholar
  192. Yoshikawa, H., Weiland, C., Brooks-Gunn, J., Burchinal, M. R., Espinosa, L. M., Gormley, W. T., & Zaslow, M. J. (2013). Investing in our future: The evidence base on preschool education. Ann Arbor: Society for Research in Child Development.Google Scholar
  193. Zhai, F., Raver, C. C., & Jones, S. M. (2012). Academic performance of subsequent schools and impacts of early interventions: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial in Head Start settings. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(5), 946–954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Zimmerman, D. (2003). Peer effects in academic outcomes: Evidence from a natural experiment. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 85(1), 9–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations