Advertisement

Conclusion

  • Gillian G. Tan
Chapter
Part of the Studies in Human Ecology and Adaptation book series (STHE, volume 10)

Abstract

This book has proposed a framework for change, based on a view of change that is not only predicated on substantive fixity but also—and more crucially—understood through probing and analyzing relationships. In this regard, the argument draws certain parallels with Sahlins’ (Historical metaphors and mythical realities: Structure in the early history of the Sandwich Islands kingdoms, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI, 1981; Islands of history, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1985) work on cultural change. Through the “structure of the conjuncture,” Sahlins demonstrated how a system or structure could transform. Importantly, the impetus behind the transformation was not an external force or agent, although the presence of a “new” variable, namely the event, initiated transformations in structure. Instead, transformations were created by the conjuncture of certain cultural categories (structure) and the new variable (event) given by people acting according to relationships. This chapter considers this argument in light of the analyses on adaptations and transformations. It reflects on the conceptual implications of a framework for change, based on different orders and kinds, and cautions about being overly distinct with analytical categories when detailing ethnographic complexities. It also offers insights into the practical implications of actions based on a view of change as fundamentally connected to stability.

Keywords

Structure of the conjuncture Ethnographic complexity Orders of change Kinds of change Conceptual and practical implications 

References

  1. Bateson, G. (1991 [1976]). Orders of change. In G. Bateson (Ed.), A sacred unity: Further steps to an ecology of mind (pp. 283–289). New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  2. Bauer, K. (2005). Development and the enclosure movement in pastoral Tibet since the 1980s. Nomadic Peoples, 9(1&2), 53–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bauer, K., & Nyima, Y. (2011). Laws and regulations impacting the enclosure movement on the Tibetan Plateau of China. Himalaya, 30(1), 23–37.Google Scholar
  4. Brunois, F. (2007). Le jardin du casoar, la forêt des Kasua: Epistémologie des savoir-être et savoir-faire écologiques, Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée. Paris: Maison des sciences de l’homme.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chatty, D. (Ed.). (2006). Nomadic societies in the Middle East and North Africa: Entering the 21st century. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  6. Descola, P. (1994). In the society of nature: A native ecology in Amazonia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Descola, P. (2005). Par-delà nature et culture. Paris: Editions Gallimard.Google Scholar
  8. Descola, P., & Pálsson, G. (Eds.). (1996). Nature and society: Anthropological perspectives. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Durmowicz, A. G., Hofmeister, S., Kadyraliev, T. K., Aldashev, A. A., & Stenmark, K. R. (1993). Functional and structural adaptation of the yak pulmonary circulation to residence at high altitude. Journal of Applied Physiology, 74(5), 2276–2285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dyson-Hudson, R., & Dyson-Hudson, N. (1980). Nomadic pastoralism. Annual Review of Anthropology, 9(1), 15–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gaerrang. (2015a). Development as entangled knot: The case of the slaughter renunciation movement in Tibet, China. The Journal of Asian Studies, 74(4), 927–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gaerrang. (2015b). Housing projects in the nomadic areas of China’s Eastern Tibetan Plateau: Representation, market logic and governmentality. Nomadic Peoples, 19(2), 261–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Galaty, J., & Johnson, D. (Eds.). (1990). The world of pastoralism: Herding systems in comparative perspective. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  14. Galvin, K. A. (2009). Transitions: Pastoralists living with change. Annual Review of Anthropology, 38, 185–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gluckman, M. (1968). The utility of the equilibrium model in the study of social change. American Anthropologist, 70(2), 219–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gunderson, L. (2000). Ecological resilience—In theory and application. Annual Review of Ecological Systems, 31(1), 425–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gunderson, L. H., Allen, C. R., & Holling, C. S. (Eds.). (2010). Foundations of ecological resilience. Washington: Island Press.Google Scholar
  18. Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Holling, C. S. (1996). Engineering resilience versus ecological resilience. In P. C. Schulze (Ed.), Engineering within ecological constraints (pp. 31–44). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  20. Hu, Z. (2010). The travails of the ninth dragon god: The struggle for water, worship and the politics of getting by in a north China village. Human Ecology, 39(1), 81–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Malinowski, B. (1945). The dynamics of culture change: An inquiry into race relations in Africa. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Moore, L. G. (2001). Human genetic adaptation to high altitude. High Altitude Medicine & Biology, 2(2), 257–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moore, L. G., Armaza, V. F., Villena, M., & Vargas, E. (2002). Comparative aspects of high-altitude adaptation in human populations. Oxygen Sensing, 475(2), 45–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pálsson, G. (1996). Human-environmental relations: Orientalism, paternalism and communalism. In P. Descola & G. Pálsson (Eds.), Nature and society: Anthropological perspectives (pp. 63–81). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  25. Pedersen, M. (2001). Totemism, animism and North Asian indigenous ontologies. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 7(3), 411–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sahlins, M. D. (1981). Historical metaphors and mythical realities: Structure in the early history of the Sandwich Islands kingdoms. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sahlins, M. D. (1985). Islands of history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  28. Salzman, P. C. (2004). Pastoralists: Equality, hierarchy and the state. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  29. Sillitoe, P., Bicker, A., & Pottier, J. (Eds.). (2002). Participating in development: Approaches to indigenous knowledge. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Tan, G. G. (2016). In the circle of white stones: Moving with nomads of Eastern Tibet. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  31. Tsing, A. L. (2013). Sorting out commodities: How capitalist value is made through gifts. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 3(1), 21–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Viveiros de Castro, E. (1992). From the enemy’s point of view: Humanity and divinity in an Amazonian society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  33. Viveiros de Castro, E. (2004). Exchanging perspectives: The transformation of objects into subjects in Amerindian ontologies. Common Knowledge, 10(3), 463–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Willerslev, R. (2007). Soul hunters: Hunting, animism and personhood among the Siberian Yukaghirs. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xu, H. (2009). Resilience of Tibetan pastoral system in modernisation. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.Google Scholar
  36. Xu, J., Ma, E., Tashi, D., Fu, Y., Lu, Z., & Melnick, D. (2006). Integrating sacred knowledge for conservation: Cultures and landscapes in Southwest China. Ecology and Society, 10(2), 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yeh, E. T. (2013). Taming tibet: Landscape transformation and the gift of Chinese development. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Yeh, E. T., & Gaerrang. (2011). Tibetan pastoralism in neoliberalizing China: Continuity and change in Gouli. Area, 43(2), 165–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gillian G. Tan
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Humanities and Social SciencesDeakin UniversityGeelongAustralia

Personalised recommendations