Advertisement

When Silence Is Not Golden

  • Immanuel Barshi
  • Nadine Bienefeld
Chapter

Abstract

Drawing on a survey of nurses and airline personnel, the authors make it clear that if we want to empower others to speak up and minimize errors and incidents, we need to understand personal perceptions of risk in order to mitigate the worries and fears involved. We must demonstrate that the benefits of speaking up are indeed greater than the perceived personal costs involved. The authors show that speaking up has to be encouraged constantly for people on all organizational levels, and it must be done in an environment that is safe and 100 percent conducive to their input. However, it is leaders who must help create that environment.

References

  1. Bienefeld, N. 2012. Leadership, boundary-spanning, and voice in high-risk multiteam systems. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, ETH Zurich.Google Scholar
  2. ———. 2015. The power of voice. Talk presented at TEDxZurich, Switzerland. http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/The-power-of-voice-Nadine-Bienefeld
  3. Bienefeld, N., and G. Grote. 2012. Silence that may kill: When aircrew members don’t speak up and why. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors 2 (1): 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. ———. 2014a. Shared leadership in multiteam systems: How cockpit and cabin crews lead each other to safety. Human Factors, the Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 56 (2): 270–286. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720813488137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ———. 2014b. Speaking up in multiteam systems: Effects of psychological safety, status, and leadership within and across teams. European Journal of Work and Organization Psychology 23 (6): 930–945. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2013.808398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christie, A. 1977. An autobiography. Glasgow: William Collins Sons.Google Scholar
  7. Detert, J.R., and A. Edmondson. 2011. Implicit voice theories: Taken-for-granted rules of self-censorship at work. Academy of Management Journal 54 (3): 461–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Edmondson, A. 2003. Speaking up in the operating room: How team leaders promote learning in interdisciplinary action teams. Journal of Management Studies 40: 1419–1452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jentsch, F., and K.A. Smith-Jentsch. 2001. Assertiveness and team performance: More than “Just say no”. In Improving teamwork in organizations: Applications of resource management training, ed. E. Salas, C.A. Bowers, and E. Edens, 73–94. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  10. Mauro, R., and I. Barshi. 2009. Risk assessment in aviation. Proceedings of the 15th international symposium on aviation psychology, Dayton, OH, 214–219.Google Scholar
  11. Milliken, F.J., E.W. Morrison, and P.F. Hewlin. 2003. An exploratory study of employee silence: Issues that employees don’t communicate upward and why. Journal of Management Studies 40 (6): 1453–1476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pian-Smith, M.C.M., R. Simon, R.D. Minehart, M. Podraza, J. Rudolph, T. Walzer, and D. Raemer. 2009. Teaching residents the two-challenge rule: A simulation-based approach to improve education and patient safety. Simulation in Healthcare 4: 84–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Schwappach, D., and K. Gehring. 2014. “Saying it without words”: A qualitative study of oncology staff’s experiences with speaking up about safety concerns. BMJ Open 4 (5): 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Immanuel Barshi
    • 1
  • Nadine Bienefeld
    • 2
  1. 1.Mountain ViewUSA
  2. 2.ZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations