• L. Kooijmans
  • P. GaoEmail author


An intact central nervous system is redundant in its movement control allowing us to move in a varied and targeted manner. Individuals differ in how they sit, stand and walk. This depends on the person and on the situational demands. Besides personal factors such as age and sex, environmental demands and task specific factors will play an important role in the way we perform a movement. After stroke movements are usually less varied, less targeted and less fluent. This chapter focuses on how to support and help a patient getting into bed, changing seats or comfortably lying in bed or changing from position while in bed. Subsequently, we will discuss, bed position, and movements in sitting, standing and getting up from the ground.


Making transfers Bed position Supporting movement 


  1. Otterman NM, van der Wees PJ, Bernhardt J, Kwakkel G. Physical therapists’ guideline adherence on early mobilization and intensity of practice at dutch acute stroke units: a country-wide survey. Stroke. 2012;43(9):2395–401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Schuurmans M, Hafsteinsdóttir T. Rehabilitation directive stroke for nurses. Maarssen: Elsevier Gezondheidszorg; 2008. In Dutch.Google Scholar
  3. Spruit-van Eijk M, Zuidema SU, Buijck BI, Koopmans RT, Geurts AC. To what extent can multimorbidity be viewed as a determinant of postural control in stroke patients? Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2012a;93(6):1021–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Spruit-van Eijk M, Zuidema SU, Buijck BI, Koopmans RT, Geurts AC. Determinants of rehabilitation outcome in geriatric patients admitted to skilled nursing facilities after stroke: a Dutch multi-centre cohort study. Age Ageing. 2012b;41(6):746–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. van Kordelaar J, van Wegen EE, Nijland RH, Daffertshofer A, Kwakkel G. Understanding adaptive motor control of the paretic upper limb early poststroke: the EXPLICIT-stroke program. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013;27(9):854–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Veerbeek JM, van Wegen E, van Peppen R, van der Wees PJ, Hendriks E, Rietberg M, Kwakkel G. What is the evidence for physical therapy poststroke? A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e87987.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Interesting Websites

  1. Consulted on November 25, 2017. In Dutch.Google Scholar
  2. Consulted on November 25, 2017. In Dutch.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Retired Physical Therapist, NeurologyRotterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Beijng Tong Ren Tang (China)Den HaagThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations