Everything You Wish to Know About Memristors but Are Afraid to Ask

  • Leon ChuaEmail author


This paper classifies all memristors into three classes called Ideal, Generic, or Extended memristors. A subclass of Generic memristors is related to Ideal memristors via a one-to-one mathematical transformation, and is hence called Ideal Generic memristors. The concept of non-volatile memories is defined and clarified with illustrations. Several fundamental new concepts, including Continuum-memory memristor, POP (acronym for Power-Off Plot), DC V-I Plot, and Quasi DC V-I Plot, are rigorously defined and clarified with colorful illustrations. Among many colorful pictures the shoelace DC V-I Plot stands out as both stunning and illustrative. Even more impressive is that this bizarre shoelace plot has an exact analytical representation via 2 explicit functions of the state variable, derived by a novel parametric approach invented by the author.


Memristor Continuum-memory memristor POP Power-Off plot DC V-I plot Quasi DC V-I plot Shoelace V-I plot Parametric approach Graphical composition Piecewise-Linear function (PWL) 



The author wishes to thank Prof. Hyongsuk Kim, Zubaer Ibna Mannan, and Cheol Choi for their wonderful assistance in the production of this paper. He would also like to thank Dr. R. Stanley Williams from hp for detecting several errors. The author would like to acknowledge financial support from the USA Air force office of Scientific Research under Grant number FA9550-13-1-0136 and from the European Commission Marie Curie Fellowship, and the EU COST Action IC 1401.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

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