Lying Cheating Robots – Robots and Infidelity

  • Rebekah RousiEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10715)


Love has been described as unpredictable, immeasurable and non-purchasable and as such, poses challenges for anyone in a relationship to both stay in love, and to not fall in love with someone else. Scientists are still discovering whether or not love follows any specific recipe. Outlooks, personality, sense of humor and talent may not perfectly guarantee an individual falls in love with another, and more importantly is able to sustain that relationship. This article portrays a futuristic scenario in which truly intelligent and emotional robots already exist. Here, the bi-directional love discussed in Lovotics is not simulated through engineering, but rather is genuine from the perspectives of both machine and human. This is a theoretical piece that draws on psychological theories of love, sex, attraction, associated emotions and behavior. The method involves reviewing previous literature on human-robot bi-directional love, and combines it with current discussions and theories of the realistic future potential of love relationships between humans and robots with full artificial intelligence and emotional capabilities. The result of the investigation is a multifaceted projection of the complexity humans will experience in love relationships with robots. Due to the incalculable nature of love, affection and sexual attraction, the development of robots with genuine capacity for emotions may not have the best outcome for a future of love and sex with robots.


Love Sex Emotions Infidelity Human-robot Artificial intelligence Psychology 


  1. 1.
    Bellman, R.: An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence: Can Computers Think?. Thomson Course Technology, Boston (1978)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Russell, S., Norvig, P.: Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1995)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cheok, A.D., Levy, D., Karunanayaka, K.: Lovotics: love and sex with robots. In: Karpouzis, K., Yannakakis, Georgios N. (eds.) Emotion in Games. SC, vol. 4, pp. 303–328. Springer, Cham (2016). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Samani, H.A., Cheok, A.D., Tharakan, M.J., Koh, J., Fernando, N.: A design process for lovotics. In: Lamers, M.H., Verbeek, F.J. (eds.) HRPR 2010. LNICST, vol. 59, pp. 118–125. Springer, Heidelberg (2011). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hatfield, E., Rapson, R.L.: Love, Sex, and Intimacy: Their Psychology, Biology, and History. HarperCollins College Publishers, New York (1993)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Joachim, H., Rees, D.: Aristotle: The Nicomachean Ethics. Clarendon Press, Oxford (1951)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lewis, C.: The Four Loves. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston (1991)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Soble, A.: Eros, Agape, and Philia: Readings in the Philosophy of Love. Paragon House Publishers, New York (1989)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Love. Accessed 24 May 2016
  10. 10.
    Sternberg, R.J.: Triangulating love. In: Oord, T.J. (ed.) The Altruism Reader: Selections from Writings on Love, Religion, and Science. Templeton Foundation, West Conshohocken (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sternberg, R.J.: A triangular theory of love. In: Reis, H.T., Rusbult, C.E. (eds.) Close Relationships. Psychology Press, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sternberg, R.J.: Construct validation of a triangular love scale. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 27(3), 313–335 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Diessner, R., Frost, N., Smith, T.: Describing the neoclassical psyche embedded in Sternberg’s triangular theory of love. Soc. Behav. Pers. Int. J. 32(7), 683–690 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Frijda, N.H.: The place of appraisal in emotion. Cogn. Emot. 7(3–4), 357–387 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Frijda, N.H., Zeelenberg, M.: Appraisal: what is the dependent? In: Scherer, K.R., Schorr, A., Johnstone, T. (eds.) Series in Affective Science. Appraisal Processes in Emotion: Theory, Methods, Research, pp. 141–155. Oxford University Press, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lazarus, R.S.: Relational meaning and discrete emotions. In: Scherer, K.R., Schorr, A., Johnstone, T. (eds.) Series in Affective Science. Appraisal Processes in Emotion: Theory, Methods, Research, pp. 37–67. Oxford University Press, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Clore, G.L., Ortony, A.: Appraisal theories: how cognition shapes affect into emotion. In: Lewis, M., Haviland-Jones, J.M., Barrett, L.F. (eds.) Handbook of Emotions, pp. 628–642. Guilford Press, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yilmaz, V.: Consumer behavior in shopping center choice. Soc. Behav. Pers. Int. J. 32(8), 783–790 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fournier, S.: Consumers and their brands: developing relationship theory in consumer research. J. Consum. Res. 24(4), 343–373 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rousi, R.: From Cute to Content: User Experience From a Cognitive Semiotic Perspective. Jyväskylä Studies in Computing, vol. 171. University of Jyväskylä Press, Jyväskylä (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Watson, L., Spence, M.T.: Causes and consequences of emotions on consumer behaviour: a review and integrative cognitive appraisal theory. Eur. J. Mark. 41(5/6), 487–511 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kelley, H.H., Berscheid, E., Christensen, A., Harvey, J.H., Huston, T.L., et al.: Close Relationships. Freeman, New York (1983)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Finkel, E.J., Simpson, J.A., Eastwick, P.W.: The psychology of close relationships: fourteen core principles. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 68, 383–411 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rusbult, C.E.: A longitudinal test of the investment model: the development (and deterioration) of satisfaction and commitment in heterosexual involvements. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 45, 101–117 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Salman, A.: Comprehensive Dictionary of Psychoanalysis, p. 89. Karnac Books, London (2009)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maslow, A.H.: A theory of human motivation. Psycholo. Rev. 50(4), 360–396 (1943)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Oxford English Dictionary: Fidelity.
  28. 28.
    Fletcher, G.P.: Loyalty: An Essay on the Morality of Relationships. Oxford University Press, New York (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mattingly, B.A., Wilson, K., Clark, E.M., Bequette, A.W., Weidler, D.J.: Foggy faithfulness: relationship quality, religiosity, and the perceptions of dating infidelity scale in an adult sample. J. Fam. Issues 31(11), 1465–1480 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stafford, L., Canary, D.J.: Maintenance strategies and romantic relationship type, gender and relational characteristics. J. Soc. Pers. Relat. 8(2), 217–242 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Drigotas, S.M., Barta, W.: The cheating heart: scientific explorations of infidelity. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 10(5), 177–180 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Daly, M., Wilson, M.: Homicide. Aldine de Gruyter, Hawthorne (1988)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rusbult, C.E., Drigotas, S.M., Verette, J.: The investment model: an interdependence analysis of commitment processes and relationship maintenance phenomena. In: Canary, D., Stafford, L. (eds.) Communication and Relational Maintenance, pp. 115–139. Academic Press, San Diego (1994)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Buss, D.: Evolutionary Psychology. Allyn & Bacon, Needham Heights (1998)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Levy, D.: Love and Sex with Robots: The Evolution of Human-Robot Relationships. Harper Collins, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sullins, J.: Robots, love, and sex: the ethics of building a love machine. IEEE Trans. Affect. Comput. 3(4), 398–409 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Meston, C.M., Buss, D.M.: Why humans have sex. Arch. Sex. Behav. 36(4), 477–507 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fehr, B., Russell, J.A.: The concept of love viewed from a prototype perspective. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 60(3), 425 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Russell, J.A., Fehr, B.: Fuzzy concepts in a fuzzy hierarchy: varieties of anger. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 67(2), 186 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lin, P., Adney, K., Bekey, G.A.: Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics. MIT Press, Cambridge (2011)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sparrow, R.: Robots, rape, and representation. Int. J. Soc. Robot. 9, 1–13 (2017)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Richardson, K.: The asymmetrical ‘relationship’: parallels between prostitution and the development of sex robots. ACM SIGCAS Comput. Soc. 45(3), 290–293 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mackenzie, R.: Sexbots: replacements for sex workers? Ethical constraints on the design of sentient beings for utilitarian purposes. In: Proceedings of the 2014 Workshops on Advances in Computer Entertainment Conference, p. 8. ACM (2014)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Adams, A.A.: Virtual sex with child avatars. In: Wankel, C., Malleck, S. (eds.) Emerging Ethical Issues of Life in Virtual Worlds, pp. 55–72. Information Age Publishing, Charlotte (2010)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Snell, J.: Sexbots: an editorial. Psychol. Educ. Interdisc. J. 42(1), 49–50 (2005)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Turkle, S.: Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other. Basic Books, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ashrafian, H.: AlonAI: a humanitarian law of artificial intelligence and robotics. Sci. Eng. Ethics 21(1), 29–40 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ashrafian, H.: Artificial intelligence and robot responsibilities: innovating beyond rights. Sci. Eng. Ethics 21(2), 317–326 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Madden, J.: Should having sex with a robot count as cheating? BBC. Accessed 02 June 2017
  50. 50.
    Rawlinson, K.: Microsoft’s Bill Gates insists AI is a threat. NNB News. Accessed 02 June 2017
  51. 51.
    Lewis, T.: Stephen Hawking: artificial intelligence could end human race. Live Science, Accessed 02 June 2017
  52. 52.
    Mackenzie Wright, D.W.: Hunting humans: a future for tourism in 2200. Futures 78–79, 34–46 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fox, S.: Evolving robots learn to lie to each other. Popular Science. Accessed 07 July 2017
  54. 54.
    Litiou, A., Ullman, D., Kim, J., Scassellati, B.: Evidence that robots trigger a cheating detector in humans. In: Proceedings of the Tenth Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 165–172. ACM (2015)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Short, E., Hart, J., Vu, M., Scassellati, B.: No fair!! an interaction with a cheating robot. In: The Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 219–226 (2010)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ullman, D., Leite, I., Phillips, J., Kim-Cohen, J., Scassellati, B.: Smart human, smarter robot: how cheating affects perceptions of social agency. In: Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (2014)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cosmides, L.: The logic of social exchange: has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with the Wason selection task. Cogn. 31(3), 187–276 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cosmides, L., Tooby, J.: Cognitive adaptations for social exchange. In: Barkow, J.H., Cosmides, L., Tooby, J. (eds.) The Adapted Mind – Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture, pp. 163–228. Oxford University Press, New York (1992)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Verplatse, J., Vanneste, S., Braekman, J.: You can judge a book by its cover: the sequel: a kernel of truth in predictive cheating detection. Evol. Hum. Behav. 28(4), 260–271 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hutson, M.: The 7 laws of magical thinking: how irrational beliefs keep us happy, healthy, and sane, pp. 165–171. Hudson Street Press, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mori, M., MacDorman, K.F., Kageki, N.: The uncanny valley [from the field]. IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag. 19(2), 98–100 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hanson, D., Olney, A., Prilliman, S., Mathews, E., Zielke, M., Hammons, D., Fernandez, R., Stephanou, H.: Upending the uncanny valley. In: Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, vol. 20(4), pp. 1728–1729. MIT Press, Cambridge (1999) Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Barber, T.: Kinky Borgs and sexy robots: the fetish, fashion and discipline of seven of nine. In: Channeling the Future: Essays on Science Fiction and Fantasy Television, pp. 133–148. Scarecrow Publishing, Metuchen (2009)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kaplan, F.: Who is afraid of the humanoid? Investigating cultural differences in the acceptance of robots. Int. J. Humanoid Robot. 1(03), 465–480 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Suzuki, T.: Word in Context: A Japanese Perspective on Language and Culture. Kodansha International, Tokyo (2001)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Staszak, J.F.: Other/otherness. In: Kitchin, R., Thrift, N. (eds.) International Encyclopaedia of Human Geography, vol. 8, pp. 43–47. Elsevier, Oxford (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Berque, A., Schwartz, R.: Japan Nature, Artifice and Japanese Culture. Pilkington, Yelvertoft Manor (1997)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fontichiaro, K.: Taming the technology leadership dragon. In: Coatney, S., Harada, V.H. (eds.) The Many Faces of School Library Leadership, pp. 119–132. Libraries Unlimited, Denver (2017)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mori, M.: The Buddha in the Robot. Kosei Publishing Company, Tokyo (1981)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Starobinski, J.: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, transparency and obstruction. Goldhammer, A. [Trans.]. University of Chicago Press, IL (1988)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Syrdal, D.S., Nomura, T., Hirai, H., Dautenhahn, K.: Examining the frankenstein syndrome. In: Mutlu, B., Bartneck, C., Ham, J., Evers, V., Kanda, T. (eds.) ICSR 2011. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 7072, pp. 125–134. Springer, Heidelberg (2011). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Li, D., Rau, P.P., Li, Y.: A cross-cultural study: effect of robot appearance and task. Int. J. Soc. Robot. 2(2), 175–186 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    ATR Home: Hiroshi Ishiguro Laboratories.
  74. 74.
    Guizzo, E.: Hiroshi Ishiguro: The Man Who Made a Copy of Himself. IEEE Spectrum (2010).
  75. 75.
    Minsky, M.L.: Will robots inherit the earth. Scientific American 271(4), 108–113 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland

Personalised recommendations