Imaging Metastatic Spinal Disease
Imaging plays a significant role in the diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of patients with cancer. The objectives of imaging in the evaluation of patients with known or suspected cancer are to localize and characterize the pathologic lesion, to provide a reasonable differential diagnosis, to guide further diagnostic imaging and treatment planning, to determine adequacy of surgical resection, and to monitor therapeutic response and complications. The purpose of this chapter is to review imaging modalities commonly used to image patients with known or suspected metastatic spinal disease, to introduce terms often associated with each modality, and to illustrate the diagnostic imaging approach to evaluating the spine using individual cases.
KeywordsBone neoplasms Magnetic resonance imaging Tomography, X-ray Computed myelography Positron-emission tomography Spinal cord compression
- 3.Sutcliffe P, Connock M, Shyangdan D, et al. A systematic review of evidence on malignant spinal metastases: natural history and technologies for identifying patients at high risk of vertebral fracture and spinal cord compression. Health Technol Assess. 2013;17(42):1–274.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 17.Bushberg JT, Seibert JA, Leidholdt EM Jr, Boone JM. The essential physics of medical imaging. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012.Google Scholar
- 28.Fisher CG, Versteeg AL, Schouten R, Boriani S, Varga PP, Rhines LD, Heran MK, Kawahara N, Fourney D, Reynolds JJ, Fehlings MG, Gokaslan ZL. Reliability of the spinal instability neoplastic scale among radiologists: an assessment of instability secondary to spinal metastases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2014;203(4):869–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar