Laser/Light Applications in Ophthalmology: Visual Refraction

  • Amit TodaniEmail author
  • Mahnaz Nouri
  • Roberto Pineda


  • Refractive laser technology is used for correction of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.

  • Laser vision correction can be performed on the surface the cornea after removing the epithelium or deeper into stroma under a hinged corneal flap.

  • Proper candidate selection is essential to minimize the risk of complications.

  • Corneal collagen cross-linking with ultraviolet light and riboflavin (a photo sensitizer) is a relatively new treatment modality for a variety of corneal keratectatic disorders.

  • Femtosecond laser technology has recently evolved into a tool for cataract surgery.


LASER LASIK LASEK epi-LASIK PRK PTK Ophthalmology Visual science Refraction Refractive surgery Femtosecond laser Excimer laser 



The authors would like to thank Advanced Medical Optics, Inc. (AMO, USA) and Alcon Laboratories, Inc. (Alcon, USA) for providing the color photographs used in this chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologySturdy Eye Surgery and Laser CenterNorth AttleboroUSA
  2. 2.Boston Eye GroupBrooklineUSA
  3. 3.Department of OpthalmologyMassachusetts Ear and Eye HospitalBostonUSA

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