Conclusion: Atlantic Philanthropists in Revolutionary Saint-Domingue
Philanthropists made important contributions to the Haitian Revolution through the Catholic Church, learned societies, educational institutions, the press, the military, and direct political action. Some whites openly challenged the dominant racial divisions in the Old Regime French Atlantic. These whites, many of whom were long-term residents of the colony, led, worked alongside, and even served under blacks and people of color. With various motives, approaches, and outcomes, a small group of white philanthropists strove to improve the lives of peoples of African descent.