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Proterozoic Basement, Paleozoic Tectonics of NW South America, and Implications for Paleocontinental Reconstruction of the Americas

  • Pedro A. Restrepo-Pace
  • Fabio Cediel
Part of the Frontiers in Earth Sciences book series (FRONTIERS)

Abstract

This paper summarizes geological data from the basement massifs of the northern Andes, which constrains their evolution since Late Proterozoic time. Regional associations, age, and tracer isotopic data suggest that two orogenic episodes—Orinoquiense-Grenvillian (~1.0 Ga) and Quetame-Caparonensis (~0.47 Ga)—consolidated the basement of the northern Andes, here referred to as the Chicamocha terrane. The Paleozoic paleogeography has been refined by establishing connections between provincial fauna. Faunal constraints indicate a Gondwanan affinity in the Cambro-Ordovician and an Appalachian character for the Siluro-Devonian assemblages. In a broader context, the proto Andean Grenvillian-Orinoquiense (~1.0 Ga) and Quetame-Caparonensis-Famatinian (~0.5–0.43 Ga) orogens may be traced from the Andes of Venezuela down to Argentina. A fragment of the Chicamocha terrane and its Cambro-Ordovician cover was “transferred” to southern Mexico in Late Paleozoic time. Permian magmatic belts running along active margins in Mexico and northern South America place a time limit for this connection at the onset of the assemblage of Pangea.

Keywords

Northern South America Tectonics Late Proterozoic-Early Paleozoic Orogenic events Paleocontinental reconstructions 

Abbreviations

CCB

Cauarane-Coeroeni belt

CGMW

Commission for the Geological Map of the World

COGEMA

Compagnie Générale des Matières nucléaires

CPRM

Companhia de Pesquisa de Recursos Minerais, (Serviço Geológico do Brasil)

Ga

Giga-annum, billion (109) years

ITD

Isothermal decompression

LA-(MC)-ICP-MS

Laser ablation (multicCollector) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

Ma

Mega-annum, million (106) years

PRORADAM

Proyecto Radargramétrico del Amazonas

REE

Rare earth elements

RNJ

Rio Negro-Juruena (geological province)

SHRIMP

Sensitive high-resolution ion micro probe

TDM

Depleted mantle age

TTG

Tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite

UHT

Ultrahigh temperature

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oilsearch LimitedSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Consulting GeologistDepartment of Geology University EAFITMedellínColombia

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