Nano-mechanical Properties

  • Mehdi Ostadhassan
  • Kouqi Liu
  • Chunxiao Li
  • Seyedalireza Khatibi
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Petroleum Geoscience & Engineering book series (BRIEFSPGE)

Abstract

With the development of production from shale oil and shale gas in North America during the last decade, more studies are being conducted in order to improve our knowledge of the shale characteristics. In this chapter, we talk about mechanical properties of shale samples in micro- and nano-scale. Nanoindentation and Atomic Force Microscopy were newly used advanced techniques in petroleum engineering to investigate the mechanical properties of shales. X-ray diffraction and energy diffusive spectroscopy were used to study the mineral compositions. Based on nanoindentation experiments, elastic modulus and hardness can be extracted from the force-displacement curve. AFM Peakforce quantitively nanomechanical mode is a relatively new mode which can produce maps of surface height and DMT modulus at the same time. In this chapter, we report the application of these two techniques on shale samples taken from Bakken Formation in Williston Basin, North Dakota.

References

  1. Alstadt KN, Katti KS, Katti DR (2015) Nanoscale morphology of kerogen and in situ nanomechanical properties of Green River Oil shale. J Nanomech Micromech 6(1):04015003Google Scholar
  2. Bobko CP (2008) Assessing the mechanical microstructure of shale by nanoindentation: the link between mineral composition and mechanical properties. PhD thesisGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheng Y-T, Li Z, Cheng C-M (2002) Scaling relationships for indentation measurements. Philos Mag A 82(10):1821–1829Google Scholar
  4. Cook RF, Pharr GM (1990) Direct observation and analysis of indentation cracking in glasses and ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 73(4):787–817Google Scholar
  5. Curiale JA (1986) Origin of solid bitumens, with emphasis on biological marker results. Org Geochem 10:559–580Google Scholar
  6. Delafargue A (2003) Material invariant properties of shales: nanoindentation and micro poroelastic analysis. Master thesisGoogle Scholar
  7. Doerner MF, Nix WD (1986) A method for interpreting the data from depth sensing indentation instruments. J Mater Res 1(4):601–609Google Scholar
  8. Domnich V, Gogotsi Y, Dub S (2000) Effect of phase transformations on the shape of the unloading curve in the nanoindentation of silicon. Appl Phys Lett 76(16):2214–2216Google Scholar
  9. Eliyahu M, Emmanuel S, Day-Stirrat RJ, Macaulay CI (2015) Mechanical properties of organic matter in shales mapped at the nanometer scale. Mar Pet Geol 59:294–304Google Scholar
  10. Fischer-Cripps AC (2006) Critical review of analysis and interpretation of nanoindentation test data. Surf Coat Technol 200(14–15):4153–4165Google Scholar
  11. Gathier B (2006) Multiscale strength homogenization—application to shale nanoindentation. Master thesisGoogle Scholar
  12. Heap MJ, Baud P, Meredith PG et al (2009) Time-dependent brittle creep in Darley Dale sandstone. J Geophys Res Sol Earth 114(B07203):1–22Google Scholar
  13. Kong L, Ostadhassan M, Li C, Tamimi N (2018) Pore characterization of 3D-printed gypsum rocks: a comprehensive approach. J Mater Sci 53(7):5063–5078Google Scholar
  14. Kruzic JJ, Kim DK, Koester KJ, Ritchie RO (2009) Indentation techniques for evaluating the fracture toughness of biomaterials and hard tissues. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2(4):384–395Google Scholar
  15. Kumar V, Curtis ME, Gupta N, Sondergeld CH, Rai CS (2012) Estimation of elastic properties of organic matter in Woodford shale through nanoindentation measurements. Society of Petroleum EngineersGoogle Scholar
  16. Lawn BR, Evans AG, Marshall DB (1980) Elastic/plastic indentation damage in ceramics: the median/radial crack system. J Am Ceram Soc 63(9–10):574–581Google Scholar
  17. Li C, Ostadhassan M, Kong L (2017) Nanochemo-mechanical characterization of organic shale through AFM and EDS. In: SEG International Exposition and Annual Meeting, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2017, OctoberGoogle Scholar
  18. Li Q, Xing H, Liu J, Liu X (2015) A review on hydraulic fracturing of unconventional reservoir. Petroleum 1(1):8–15Google Scholar
  19. Li Y, Ghassemi A (2012) Creep behavior of Barnett, Haynesville, and Marcellus shale. Presented at the 46th US rock mechanics/geomechanics symposium. American Rock Mechanics AssociationGoogle Scholar
  20. Mason J, Carloni J, Zehnder A, Baker SP, Jordan T (2014) Dependence of micromechanical properties on lithofacies: indentation experiments on Marcellus shale. Society of Petroleum EngineersGoogle Scholar
  21. Naderi S et al (2016) Modeling of porosity in hydroxyapatite for finite element simulation of nanoindentation test. Ceram Int 42(6):7543–7550Google Scholar
  22. Oliver WC, Pharr GM (1992) An improved technique for determining hardness and elastic modulus using load and displacement sensing indentation experiments. J Mater Res 7(6):1564–1583Google Scholar
  23. Oyen ML, Cook RF (2009) A practical guide for analysis of nanoindentation data. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2(4):396–407Google Scholar
  24. Scholz T, Schneider GA, Muñoz-Saldaña M, Swain MV (2004) Fracture toughness from submicron derived indentation cracks. Appl Phys Lett 84(16):3055–3057Google Scholar
  25. Sebastiani M, Johanns KE, Herbert EG, Pharr GM (2015) Measurement of fracture toughness by nanoindentation methods: recent advances and future challenges. Curr Opin Solid State Mater Sci 19(6):324–333Google Scholar
  26. Shukla P, Kumar V, Curtis M, Sondergeld CH, Rai CS (2013) Nanoindentation studies on shales. American Rock Mechanics AssociationGoogle Scholar
  27. Sone H, Zoback MD (2014) Time-dependent deformation of shale gas reservoir rocks and its long-term effect on the in situ state of stress. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 69:120–132Google Scholar
  28. Tabor D (1978) Phase transitions and indentation hardness of Ge and diamond. Nature 273(5661):406Google Scholar
  29. Tanguy M, Bourmaud A, Baley C (2016) Plant cell walls to reinforce composite materials: relationship between nanoindentation and tensile modulus. Mater Lett 167:161–164Google Scholar
  30. Ulm F-J, Vandamme M, Bobko C et al (2007) Statistical indentation techniques for hydrated nanocomposites: concrete, bone, and shale. J Am Ceram Soc 90(9):2677–2692Google Scholar
  31. Vandamme M, Ulm F-J (2009) Nanogranular origin of concrete creep. PNAS 106(26):10552–10557Google Scholar
  32. Wang X et al (2015) High damage tolerance of electrochemically lithiated silicon. Nat Commun 6:1–7Google Scholar
  33. Wu Z, Baker TA, Ovaert TC et al (2011) The effect of holding time on nanoindentation measurements of creep in bone. J Bio Mech 44(6):1066–1072Google Scholar
  34. Xiao G, Yang X, Yuan G, Li Z, Shu X (2015) Mechanical properties of intermetallic compounds at the Sn-3.0 Ag-0.5 Cu/Cu joint interface using nanoindentation. Mater Des 88:520–527Google Scholar
  35. Yuan CC, Xi XK (2011) On the correlation of Young’s modulus and the fracture strength of metallic glasses. J Appl Phys 109(3):1–5Google Scholar
  36. Zargari S, Prasad M, Mba KC, Mattson ED (2013) Organic maturity, elastic properties, and textural characteristics of self resourcing reservoirs. Geophysics 78:D223–D235Google Scholar
  37. Zhu W, Hughes JJ, Bicanic N, Pearce CJ (2007) Nanoindentation mapping of mechanical properties of cement paste and natural rocks. Mater Charact 58(11–12):1189–1198Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mehdi Ostadhassan
    • 1
  • Kouqi Liu
    • 1
  • Chunxiao Li
    • 1
  • Seyedalireza Khatibi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Petroleum EngineeringUniversity of North DakotaGrand ForksUSA

Personalised recommendations