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Field Effects on Reacting Systems

  • Eugene A. Olevsky
  • Dina V. Dudina
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter, the behavior of multicomponent and reacting powder systems in electromagnetic fields is discussed in view of the possibilities of the formation of dense materials as well as reaction products of different porosities and morphologies. General considerations regarding the process of reactive sintering and its driving forces are presented. Studies demonstrating the intensification of diffusion in the presence of the inter-particle contact heat sources are reviewed. Possibilities of reactive sintering during microwave treatment and sintering in constant magnetic field are presented. Initiation of chemical reactions by electric current, including high-voltage electric discharges, and mechanisms responsible for acceleration and deceleration of chemical reactions under applied electric field are discussed. It is shown that spark plasma sintering (SPS) has become a popular synthesis method in solid-state chemistry and a materials design tool at different length scales. The best scenario for obtaining a dense fine-grained material by reactive SPS is simultaneous reaction and densification: the reaction in the system should start at temperatures high enough to sinter the reaction product to high relative densities. Possible transformations of carbon allotropes under applied electric current are reviewed. Specifics of interaction of materials with carbon of graphite tooling and graphite foil and the mechanisms of carbon incorporation into materials of different chemical nature during SPS are discussed. Examples of materials with attractive mechanical and functional properties obtained by reactive SPS are presented. It is demonstrated that particles with core–shell morphology are interesting objects to be processed by SPS into bulk porous or dense solids. It is concluded that the successes of reactive SPS in synthesizing bulk materials can be further extended to the simultaneous synthesis and joining of different materials as well as manufacturing of coatings.

Keywords

Reactive sintering Driving force Chemical reactivity In situ synthesis Graphite tooling Carbon contamination Mechanical properties Gradient microstructure Porous materials 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene A. Olevsky
    • 1
  • Dina V. Dudina
    • 2
  1. 1.College of EngineeringSan Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesNovosibirskRussia

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