Of ghosts and girls in Ulysses 13

  • Patrizia Grimaldi-Pizzorno


A hidden reference to a ghost song reveals that James Joyce’s intertextual method in Ulysses 13 is one of encryptment and conjuration. Gerty MacDowell has no real presence. Replaced by a plurality of Doppelgänger from literature, theatre, photography, songs, cinema and so on, she cannot be fully present because she has no being in herself, but marks a relation to what is no longer or not yet. As barely revealed traces of the unsaid and unseen crisscross the realistic narrative, the reader becomes aware that Joyce’s technique for rendering consciousness is filmic. It recalls photodynamism, a technique invented by the Futurists, who produced studio portraits that simulated ectoplasmic manifestations. Fascinated by the mystery of the medianic materialisation, well before Jacques Derrida’s pronouncements, they defined film, photography and painting in terms of phantoms.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrizia Grimaldi-Pizzorno
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SienaSienaItaly

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