Advertisement

Ecology, Diversity and Conservation of Saproxylic Hymenopteran Parasitoids

  • Jacek Hilszczański
Chapter
Part of the Zoological Monographs book series (ZM, volume 1)

Abstract

The ecological adaptations of parasitoids associated with bark- and wood-boring insects, i.e. saproxylic insects, are presented principally from examples of Ichneumonoidea but also other families of saproxylic parasitoids typically associated with insects inhabiting dead wood. Morphological adaptations to hosts living in wood, behaviours related to parasitism of the host and life strategies of saproxylic idiobionts and koinobionts are characterised. From the example of Doryctes leucogaster (Nees) (Doryctinae, Braconidae), details of searching behaviour and the oviposition process are described. Brief summaries of the main “saproxylic” subfamilies of Ichneumonidae and Braconidae followed by Stephanidae, Aulacidae, Ibaliidae and Orussidae are included. Habitat requirements of saproxylic ichneumonoid parasitoids in boreal and temperate forests are presented in relation to forest successional stage and the type and position of woody substrates. The potential role of saproxylic parasitoids as indicators of saproxylic habitat quality is discussed, and the lack of ecological knowledge for most saproxylic parasitoid taxa, especially from tropical zones, is indicated.

References

  1. Abell KJ, Duan JJ, Bauer L, Lelito JP, Van Driesche RG (2012) The effect of bark thickness on host partitioning between Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Atanycolus spp. (Hymen: Braconidae), two parasitoids of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Biol Control 63:320–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Askew RR, Shaw MR (1986) Parasitoid communities: their size, structure and development. In: Waage J, Greathead D (eds) Insect parasitoids. Academic Press, London, pp 225–264Google Scholar
  3. Berisford CW (2011) Parasitoids of the southern pine beetle. In: Coulson RN, Klepzig KD (eds) Southern pine beetle II. Southern Research Station, GTR SRS-140, Asheville, NC, pp 129–139Google Scholar
  4. Broad GR, Quicke DLJ (2000) The adaptive significance of host location by vibrational sounding in parasitoid wasps. Proc R Soc Lond 267:2403–2409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cameron EA (2011) Parasitoids in the management of Sirex noctilio. In: Slippers B, de Groot P, Wingfield MJ (eds) The Sirex woodwasp and its fungal symbiont. Research and management of a worldwide invasive pest. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 103–117Google Scholar
  6. Carnegie AJ, Eldridge RH, Waterson DG (2005) History and management of Sirex wood wasp in pine plantations in New South Wales, Australia. N Z J Sci 35(1):3–24Google Scholar
  7. Collett NG, Elms S (2009) The control of Sirex wood wasp using biological control agents in Victoria, Australia. Agric For Entomol 11(3):283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Culliney TW, Grace JK (2000) Prospects for the biological control of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), with special reference to Coptotermes formosanus. Bull Entomol Res 90:9–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Duan JJ, Bauer LS, Abell KJ, Ulyshen MD, Van Driesche RG (2015) Population dynamics of an invasive forest insect and associated natural enemies in the aftermath of invasion: implications for biological control. J Appl Ecol 52:1246–1254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Duan JJ, Aparicio E, Tatman D, Smith MT, Luster DG (2016) Potential new associations of North American parasitoids with the invasive Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) for biological control. J Econ Entomol 109(2):699–704CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Fitton MG, Shaw MR, Gauld ID (1988) Pimpline ichneumon-flies. Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae (Pimplinae). In: Handbooks for the identification of British Insects, vol 7, no. 1. Royal Entomological Society of London, London, pp 1–110Google Scholar
  12. Gaston KJ (1991) The magnitude of global insect species richness. Conserv Biol 5:283–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gauld ID, Wahl DB (2000) The Labeninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae): a study in phylogenetic reconstruction and evolutionary biology. Zool J Linn Soc Lond 129:271–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gibb H, Hilszczański J, Hjältén J, Danell K, Ball JP, Pettersson RB, Alinvi O (2008) Responses of parasitoids to saproxylic hosts and habitat: a multi-scale study using experimental logs. Oecologia 155(1):63–74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gibbons JRH (1979) A model for sympatric speciation in Megarhyssa (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae): competetive speciation. Am Nat 114:719–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Godfray HCJ (1994) Parasitoids: behavioral and evolutionary ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  17. Golec JR, Duan JJ, Hough-Goldstein J (2017) Influence of temperature on the reproductive and developmental biology of Ontsira mellipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): implications for biological control of the Asian longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Environ Entomol 46(4):978–987CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gross P (1991) Influence of target pest feeding niche on success rates in classical biological control. Environ Entomol 20:1217–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haeselbarth E (1979) Zur Parasitierung der Puppen von Forleule (Panolis flammea (Schiff.)), Kieferspanner (Bupalus piniarius (L.)) und Heidelbeerspanner (Boarmia bistortana (Goeze)) in bayerischen Kiefernwaldern. Z Angew Entomol 87:186–202, 311–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heatwole H, Davis DM, Wenner AM (1962) The behaviour of Megarhyssa, a genus of parasitic hymenopterans (Ichneumonidae: Ephialtinae). Z Tierpsychol 19:652–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hedgren PO (2007) Early arriving saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera) and parasitoids (Hymenoptera) in low and high stumps of Norway spruce. For Ecol Manag 241(1–3):155–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hellrigl K (1984) Zur Bionomie des grünen Weidenprachtkäfers Scintillatrix (= Lampra) dives Guill. (Coleopt., Buprestidae) und des kleinen Weidenglasflüglers Synanthedon (= Sesia) formicaeformis Esp. (Lepid., Aegeriidae). Z Angew Entomol 97:499–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hilszczański J (1998) The effect of pesticides applied aerially to forest stands on four species of native Hymenopterous Parasitoids. In: Proceedings of population dynamics, impacts, and integrated management of forest defoliating insects. USDA Forest Service general technical report, NE-247, pp 116–121Google Scholar
  24. Hilszczański J (2002) Polish xoridines and their host associations (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Xoridinae). In: Melika G, Thuroczy C (eds) Parasitic wasps: evolution, systematics, biodiversity and biological control. Proceedings of symposium Koszeg, Hungary, May 2001, pp 294–298Google Scholar
  25. Hilszczański J, Gibb H, Hjältén J, Atlegrim O, Johansson T, Pettersson RB, Ball JP, Danell K (2005) Parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea) of saproxylic beetles are affected by forest management and dead wood characteristics in boreal spruce forest. Biol Conserv 126:456–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hong CD, van Achterberg C, Xu ZF (2011) A revision of the Chinese Stephanidae (Hymenoptera, Stephanoidea). ZooKeys 110:1–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Huddleston T (1980) A revision of the western Palaearctic species of the genus Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Bull Br Mus Nat Hist Entomol Ser 41(1):1–58Google Scholar
  28. Jonsell M, Nordlander G, Jonsson M (1999) Colonization pattern of insects breeding in wood-decaying fungi. J Insect Conserv 3:145–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kenis M, Hilszczanski J (2004) Natural enemies of Cerambycidae and Buprestidae in Europe. In: Lieutier F, Day K, Battisti A, Gregoire JC, Evans H (eds) European bark and wood boring insects in living trees: a synthesis. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 475–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kenis M, Mills NJ (1998) Evidence for the occurrence of sibling species in Eubazus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), parasitoids of Pissodes weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Bull Entomol Res 88:149–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kinelski S (1964) Coleocentrus excitator (Poda) (Pimplinae, Hym.) its morphology, biology, ecology and the role in forest biocenosis. Dissertation, University of Agriculture Warsaw, SGGW Warszawa (in Polish)Google Scholar
  32. Komonen A, Pentilä R, Lindgren M, Hanski I (2000) Forest fragmentation truncates a food chain based on an old-growth forest bracket fungus. Oikos 90:119–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kruger K, Mills NJ (1990) Observation on the biology of three parasitoids of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (Col., Scolytidae), Coeloides bostrychorum, Dendrosoter middendorffii (Hym., Braconidae) and Rhopalicus tutelae (Hym., Pteromalidae). J Appl Entomol 110:281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Luo YQ, Sheng ML (2010) The species of Rhimphoctona (Xylophylax) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae) parasitizing woodborers in China. J Insect Sci 10:4CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Madden JL (1968) Behavioural responses of parasites to the symbiotic fungus associated with Sirex noctilio F. Nature 218:189–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mancini D, Priore R, Battaglia D, van Achterberg C (2003) Caenopachys hartigii (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Doryctinae) confirmed from Italy, with notes on the status of the genus Caenopachys Foerster. Zool Med Leiden 77:459–470Google Scholar
  37. Martikainen P, Koponen M (2001) Meteorus corax Marshall, 1898 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a new species to Finland and Russian Karelia, with an overview of northern species of Meteorus parasitizing beetles. Entomol Fennica 12:169–172Google Scholar
  38. Paine TD, Paine EO, Hanks LM, Millar JG (2000) Resource partitioning among parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Phoracantha semipunctata in their native range. Biol Control 19:223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Quicke DLJ (1997) Parasitic wasps. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Quicke DLJ (2015) The Braconid and Ichneumonid parasitoid wasps: biology, systematics, evolution and ecology. Wiley Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  41. Quicke DLJ, Wyeth P, Fawke JD, Basibuyuk HH, Vincent JFV (1998) Manganese and zinc in the ovipositor and mandibles of hymenopterous insects. Zool J Linn Soc Lond 124:387–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schwarz M, Hilszczański J, Shaw MR (2013) Cryptus genalis Tschek, 1872 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae), a gregarious ectoparasitoid in scarabaeid pupal chambers. Entomol Gazette 64:131–134Google Scholar
  43. Shaw MR (1993) An enigmatic rearing of Dolopsidea indagator (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Entomol Rec J Var 105:31–36Google Scholar
  44. Shaw MR (1995) Observations on the adult behaviour and biology of Histeromerus mystacinus Wesmael (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Entomologist 114:1–13Google Scholar
  45. Shaw MR (2017) A few recommendations on recording host information for reared parasitoids. Hamuli 8(1):7–9Google Scholar
  46. Shaw MR, Hochberg ME (2001) The neglect of parasitic hymenoptera in insect conservation strategies: the British fauna as a prime example. J Insect Conserv 5:253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shaw MR, Huddleston T (1991) Classification and biology of braconid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). In: Handbooks for the identification of British Insects, vol 7, pp 1–126Google Scholar
  48. Shaw MR, Wahl DB (1989) The biology, egg and larvae of Acaenitus dubitator (Panzer) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae: Acaenitinae). Syst Entomol 14:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Speight MCD (1989) Saproxylic invertebrates and their conservation. Council of Europe, StrasbourgGoogle Scholar
  50. Stenbacka F, Hjältén J, Hilszczański J, Ball JP, Gibb H, Johansson T, Pettersson RB, Danell K (2010) Saproxylic parasitoid (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea) communities in managed boreal forest landscapes. Insect Conserv Divers 3:114–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tobias VI (1986) Subfamily Euphorinae. In: Tobias VI (ed) Keys to the insects of the European part of the USSR, vol 3, Hymenoptera, part 4. Nauka, Leningrad, pp 181–250 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  52. Ulyshen MD, Pucci TM, Hanula JL (2011) The importance of forest type, tree species and wood posture to saproxylic wasp (Hymenoptera) communities in the southeastern United States. J Insect Conserv 15(4):539–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Van Driesche RG, Reardon DJ (eds) (2014) The use of classical biological control to preserve forests in North America. USDA Forest Service, FHTET-2013-2, Morgantown, WVGoogle Scholar
  54. Vanlaerhoven SL, Stephen FM, Browne LE (2005) Adult parasitoids of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), feed on artificial diet on pine boles, pine canopy foliage and understory hardwood foliage. Biocontrol Sci Tech 15(3):243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Vilhelmsen L (1997) The phylogeny of lower Hymenoptera (Insecta), with a summary of the early evolutionary history of the order. J Zool Syst Evol Res 35:49–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Vilhelmsen L (2003) Phylogeny and classification of the Orussidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera), a basal parasitic wasp taxon. Zool J Linn Soc Lond 139:337–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vilhelmsen L (2011) Head capsule characters in the Hymenoptera and their phylogenetic implications. ZooKeys 130:343–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Vilhelmsen L, Isidoro N, Romani R, Basibuyuk HH, Quicke DLJ (2001) Host location and oviposition in a basal group of parasitic wasps: the subgenual organ, ovipositor apparatus, and associated structures in the Orussidae (Hymenoptera, Insecta). Zoomorphology 121:63–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vilhelmsen L, Turrisi GF, Beutel RG (2008) Distal leg morphology, subgenual organs and host detection in Stephanidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera). J Nat Hist 42(23–24):1649–1663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wang XY, Yang ZQ, Gould JR, Wu H, Ma JH (2010) Host seeking behawior and parasitism by Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) a parasitoid of the emerald ash borer. Biol Control 52:24–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wermelinger B (2004) Ecology and management of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus – a review of recent research. For Ecol Manage 202:67–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Weslien J, Schroeder LM (1999) Population levels of bark beetles and associated insects in managed and unmanaged spruce stands. Forest Ecol Manage 115:267–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yu DS, van Achterberg K, Horstmann K (2012) World Ichneumonoidea 2011. Taxonomy, biology, morphology and distribution. Taxapad, Vancouver. http://www.taxapad.com. Accessed 1 Sept 2017
  64. Zwakhals K (2010) Identification of western Palearctic Dolichomitus species (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae). Entomolog Ber Amsterdam 70(4):111–127Google Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection.  2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forest ProtectionForest Research InstituteRaszynPoland

Personalised recommendations