Advertisement

Seasonality and Stratification: Neotropical Saproxylic Beetles Respond to a Heat and Moisture Continuum with Conservatism and Plasticity

  • Amy Berkov
Chapter
Part of the Zoological Monographs book series (ZM, volume 1)

Abstract

Insect niche breadth informs community assembly and impacts the resilience of populations, species, and ecosystems. Niches are poorly known for most tropical insects, especially concealed feeders associated with tall trees. This chapter synthesizes data regarding seasonality and stratification in the early colonists of moribund wood, Cerambycidae and saproxylic Curculionidae. These data, from five rearing experiments conducted at four Neotropical moist forest sites over two decades, are of particular value because they can be used to generate predictions in an unpredictable time. Beetle species currently associated with warmer, drier, microhabitats (in the subfamily Cerambycinae and some Curculionidae) might withstand drier conditions, but not necessarily higher temperatures. Those currently associated with relatively cool, moist microhabitats (most Curculionidae) may be more vulnerable to changes in the length and severity of the dry season. Rather than characterizing tropical saproxylic insects by their periods of adult activity or flight height, which can be variable, it would be useful to conceptualize them with preferences along a continuum, from warm and dry to cool and moist.

Notes

Acknowledgments

I am grateful to the various project funders: the American Philosophical Society, the National Science Foundation, the Fund for Neotropical Plant Research of The New York Botanical Garden, the PSC-CUNY Research Foundation, and an anonymous donor. Thanks to the following for their assistance with always-daunting logistics: Hector Barrios (University of Panama), Hortensia Broce (Autoridad del Canal de Panamá), Lil Camacho (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute), Juan Carlos Cruz Díaz and Dennis Vasquez (Osa Conservation, Costa Rica), Giovana Espino and Nigel Pitman (Amazon Conservation Association), Gerardo Lamas and Juan Grados (Museo de Historia Natural, Peru), Melania Muñoz (CONAGEBIO, Costa Rica), and Karina Ramirez (INRENA, Peru). Many thanks to the following for locating and identifying host trees: Reinaldo Aguilar (Los Charcos de Osa, Costa Rica), Pedro Centeno (Amazon Conservation Association), Andrez Hernandez (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute), and Scott Mori (New York Botanical Garden). Thanks to the following for field assistance: Alec Baxt and Chris Roddick (Brooklyn Botanic Garden), Hugette and Gérald Dumas (Saül, French Guiana), Marvin Lopéz (Osa Conservation), Sara Pinzon (Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute), Eulogio Quispe (Amazon Conservation Association), Marleny Rivera (University of Panama), and Bob Weber (Highlands, NC). Thanks to previous City College and City University of New York students who sorted many thousands of beetle specimens: Timmy Eng, Joyce Fassbender, Julie Feinstein, Lin Li, and Jhunior Morillo. The following specialists very graciously assisted with beetle identification: Thomas Atkinson (University of Texas), Larry Bezark (Sacramento, CA, USA), Lawrence Kirkendall (University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway), Miguel Monné (Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Charles O’Brien (Green Valley, AZ, USA), Sarah M. Smith (Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA), Gérard Tavakilian (Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France).

References

  1. Addo-Bediako A, Chown SL, Gaston KJ (2001) Revisiting water loss in insects: a large scale view. J Insect Physiol 47:1377–1388CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Basset Y, Hammond PM, Barrios H, Holloway JD, Miller SE (2003) Vertical stratification of arthropod assemblages. In: Basset Y, Novotný V, Miller SE, Kitching RL (eds) Arthropods of tropical forests: spatio-temporal dynamics and resource use in the canopy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 17–27Google Scholar
  3. Berkov A (2002) The impact of redefined species limits in Palame (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Acanthocinini) on assessments of host, seasonal, and stratum specificity. Biol J Linn Soc 76:195–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berkov A, Tavakilian G (1999) Host utilization of the Brazil nut family (Lecythidaceae) by sympatric wood-boring species of Palame (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Acanthocinini). Biol J Linn Soc 67:181–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Betts RA, Malhi Y, Roberts JT (2008) The future of the Amazon: new perspectives from climate, ecosystem and social sciences. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 363:1729–1735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonal D, Burban B, Stahl C, Wagner F, Hérault B (2016) The response of tropical rainforests to drought—lessons from recent research and future prospects. Ann For Sci 73:27–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bouget C, Brin A, Brustel H (2011) Exploring the “last biotic frontier”: are temperate forest canopies special for saproxylic beetles? For Ecol Manag 261:211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bujan J, Yanoviak SP, Kaspari M (2016) Desiccation resistance in tropical insects: causes and mechanisms underlying variability in a Panama ant community. Ecol Evol 6:6282–6291CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Buse J (2012) “Ghosts of the past”: flightless saproxylic weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are relict species in ancient woodlands. J Insect Conserv 16:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chown SL, Sørensen JG, Terblanche JS (2011) Water loss in insects: an environmental change perspective. J Insect Physiol 57:1070–1084CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Christoffersen BO, Restrepo-Coupe N, Arain MA et al (2014) Mechanisms of water supply and vegetation demand govern the seasonality and magnitude of evapotranspiration in Amazonia and Cerrado. Agric For Meteorol 191:33–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. CICRA (Centro de Investigación y Capacitación del Río Los Amigos) (2004) Unpublished weather data 2000–2004Google Scholar
  13. Colwell RK (2013) Estimates: statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples, Version 9.1.0. Persistent URL: purl.oclc.org/estimates
  14. Comita LS, Engelbrecht BMJ (2009) Seasonal and spatial variation in water availability drive habitat associations in a tropical forest. Ecology 90:2755–2765CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. D’Angelo SA, Andrade ACS, Laurance SG, Laurance WF, Mesquita RCG (2004) Inferred causes of tree mortality in fragmented and intact Amazonian forests. J Trop Ecol 20:243–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Das AJ, Stephenson NL, Davis KP (2016) Why do trees die? Characterizing the drivers of background tree mortality. Ecology 97:2616–2627CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Denlinger DL (1986) Dormancy in tropical insects. Annu Rev Entomol 31:239–264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Deutsch CA, Tewksbury JJ, Huey RB, Sheldon KS, Ghalambor CK, Haak DC, Martin PR (2008) Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:6668–6672CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Fassbender J (2013) Diversity, resource partitioning, and species turnover in Neotropical saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Curculionidae) associated with trees in the Brazil nut family (Lecythidaceae). PhD dissertation, City University of New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Fassbender J, Baxt A, Berkov A (2014) Niches of saproxylic weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in French Guiana. Coleopt Bull 68:689–699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. García-Robledo C, Kuprewicz EK, Staines CL, Erwin TL, Kress WJ (2016) Limited tolerance by insects to high temperatures across tropical elevational gradients and the implications of global warming for extinction. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:680–685CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gillespie MAK, Birkemoe T, Sverdrup-Thygeson A (2017) Interactions between body size, abundance, seasonality, and phenology in forest beetles. Ecol Evol 7:1091–1100.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.2732CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Gonzalez-Akre E, Meakem V, Eng C-Y et al (2016) Patterns of tree mortality in a temperate deciduous forest derived from a large forest dynamics plot. Ecosphere 7(12).  https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grimbacher PS, Stork NE (2009) Seasonality of a diverse beetle assemblage inhabiting lowland tropical rain forest in Australia. Biotropica 41:328–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grove SJ (2002) Saproxylic insect ecology and the sustainable management of forests. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 33:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hanks LM, Reagel PF, Mitchell RF et al (2014) Seasonal phenology of the cerambycid beetles of east-central Illinois. Ann Entomol Soc Am 107:211–226CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Hillebrand H (2004) On the generality of the latitudinal diversity gradient. Am Nat 163:192–211CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Hoffman AA, Hallas RJ, Dean JA, Schiffer M (2003) Low potential for climatic stress adaptation in a rainforest Drosophila species. Science 301:100–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jaworski T, Hilszczanski J (2013) The effect of temperature and humidity changes on insect development and their impact on forest ecosystems in the context of expected climate change. For Res Pap 74:345–355Google Scholar
  30. Jiménez-Muñoz JC, Mattar C, Barichivich J et al (2016) Record-breaking warming and extreme drought in the Amazon rainforest during the course of el Niño 2015–2016. Sci Rep 6:33130.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep33130CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Kaspari M, Clay NA, Lucas J, Yanoviak SP (2015) Thermal adaptation generates a diversity of thermal limits in a rainforest ant community. Glob Chang Biol 21:1092–1102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Keenan RJ, Reams GA, Achard F et al (2015) Dynamics of global Forest area: results from the FAO global forest resources assessment 2015. For Ecol Manag 352:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kelber A, Warrant EJ, Pfaff M et al (2006) Light intensity limits foraging activity in nocturnal and crepuscular bees. Behav Ecol 17:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kirkendall LR, Biedermann PHW, Jordal BH (2015) Evolution and diversity of bark and ambrosia beetles. In: Vega FE, Hofstetter RW (eds) Bark beetles: biology and ecology of native and invasive species. Elsevier, London, pp 85–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kishimoto-Yamata K, Itioka T (2015) How much have we learned about seasonality in tropical insect abundance since Wolda (1988)? Entomol Sci 18:407–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kotiaho JS, Kaitala V, Komonen A, Päivinen J (2005) Predicting the risk of extinction from shared ecological characteristics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:1963–1967CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Lee C, Baxt A, Castillo S, Berkov A (2014) Stratification in French Guiana: Cerambycid beetles go up when rains come down. Biotropica 46:302–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Li L, Aguilar R, Berkov A (2017) What shapes cerambycid beetle communities in a tropical forest mosaic? Assessing the effects of host tree identity, forest structure, and vertical stratification. Biotropica 49:675–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lugo AE, Scatena FN (1996) Background and catastrophic tree mortality in tropical moist, wet, and rain forests. Biotropica 28:585–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Maass JM, Martínez-Yrízar A, Patiño C, Sarukhán J (2002) Distribution and annual net accumulation of above-ground dead phytomass and its influence on throughfall quality in a Mexican tropical deciduous forest ecosystem. J Trop Ecol 18:821–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Macedo-Reis LE, Antunes de Novais SM, Monteiro GF et al (2016) Spatio-temporal distribution of bark and ambrosia beetles in a Brazilian tropical dry forest. J Insect Sci 16:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Maguire DY, Robert K, Brochu K et al (2014) Vertical stratification of beetles (Coleoptera) and flies (Diptera) in temperate forest canopies. Environ Entomol 43:9–17CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Marengo JA, Espinoza JC (2016) Extreme seasonal droughts and floods in Amazonia: causes, trends and impacts. Int J Climatol 36:1033–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Miles L, Grainger A, Phillips O (2004) The impact of global climate change on tropical forest biodiversity in Amazonia. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 13:553–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mittelback GG, Schemske DW, Cornell HV et al (2007) Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction, and biogeography. Ecol Lett 10:315–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Monné ML, Monné MA, Mermudes JRM (2009) Inventory of the Cerambycinae species (Insecta, Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, RJ, Brazil. Biota Neotrop 9(3):283–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Monné ML, Monné MA, Quintino HY et al (2012) Inventory of the Lamiinae species (Insecta, Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, RJ, Brazil. Biota Neotrop 12(1):39–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mora C, Frazier AG, Longman RJ et al (2013) The projected timing of climate departure from recent variability. Nature 502:183–187CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Morillo J (2017) Are weevils picky eaters? Community structure and host specificity of Neotropical saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Masters dissertation, City College of New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Negrón-Juárez RI, Chambers JQ, Guimaraes G et al (2010) Widespread Amazon forest tree mortality from a single cross-basin squall line event. Geophys Res Lett 37.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL043733
  51. Nieto A, Alexander KNA (2010) European red list of saproxylic beetles. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  52. Noguera FA, Ortega-Huerta MA, Zaragoza-Caballero S, González-Soriano E, Ramírez-García E (2017) Species richness and abundance of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) in Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico; relationships with phenological changes in the tropical dry forest. Neotrop Entomol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13744-017-0534-y
  53. Noguera FA, Zaragoza-Caballero S, Chemsak JA et al (2002) Diversity of the family Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the tropical dry forest of Mexico, I. Sierra de Huautla, Morelos. Ann Entomol Soc Am 95:617–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ødegaard F (2006) Host specificity, alpha- and beta-diversity of phytophagous beetles in two tropical forests in Panama. Biodivers Conserv 15:83–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Paine CET, Harms KE, Ramos J (2009) Supplemental irrigation increases seedling performance and diversity in a tropical forest. J Trop Ecol 25:171–180.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467408005798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pitman N (2008) An overview of the Los Amigos watershed, Madre de Dios, Southeastern Peru. Unpublished report for the Amazon Conservation AssociationGoogle Scholar
  57. Piyaphongkul J, Pritchard J, Bale J (2012) Can tropical insects stand the heat? A case study with the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). PLoS One 7.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029409
  58. Rehm EM, Feeley KJ (2015) Freezing temperatures as a limit to forest recruitment above tropical Andean treelines. Ecology 96:1856–1865CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ringard J, Becker M, Seyler F, Linguet L (2015) Temporal and spatial assessment of four satellite rainfall estimates over French Guiana and north Brazil. Remote Sens 7:16441–16459.  https://doi.org/10.3390/rs71215831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Scheffers BR, Edwards DP, Macdonald SL et al (2017) Extreme thermal heterogeneity in structurally complex tropical rain forests. Biotropica 49:35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schemske DW, Mittelbach GG (2017) “Latitudinal gradients in species diversity”: reflections on Pianka’s 1966 article and a look forward. Am Nat 189:599–603CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Schoeller EN, Allison JD (2013) Flight phenologies of the southeastern Ips species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and some associated Coleoptera in central and southern Louisiana. Environ Entomol 42:1226–1239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Somero GN (2010) The physiology of climate change: how potentials for acclimatization and genetic adaptation will determine ‘winners’ and ‘losers’. J Exp Biol 213:912–920CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Spicer ME, Stark AY, Adams BJ et al (2017) Thermal constraints on foraging of canopy ants. Oecologia 183:1007–1017CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Stokland JN (2012) The saproxylic food web. In: Stokland JN, Siitonen J, Gunnar Jonsson B (eds) Biodiversity in dead wood. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 29–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Stokland JN, Siitonen J (2012) Mortality factors and decay succession. In: Stokland JN, Siitonen J, Gunnar Jonsson B (eds) Biodiversity in dead wood. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 110–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stork NE, Grimbacher PS (2006) Beetle assemblages from an Australian tropical rainforest show that the canopy and the ground strata contribute equally to biodiversity. Proc R Soc Biol Sci Ser B 273:1969–1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stork NE, Stone M, Sam L (2016) Vertical stratification of beetles in tropical rainforests as sampled by light traps in North Queensland, Australia. Aust Ecol 41:168–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Švácha P, Lawrence JF (2014) 2.4. Cerambycidae Latreille, 1802. In: Leschen RAB, Beutel RG (eds) Handbook of zoology, arthropoda: insecta; coleoptera, beetles, volume 3: morphology and systematics (Phytophaga). Walter de Gruyter, Berlin/Boston, pp 77–177Google Scholar
  70. Svensson M, Dahlberg A, Ranius T, Thor G (2014) Dead branches on living trees constitute a large part of the dead wood in managed boreal forests, but are not important for wood-dependent lichens. J Veg Sci 25:819–828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tavakilian G, Berkov A, Meurer-Grimes B, Mori S (1997) Neotropical tree species and their faunas of xylophagous longicorns (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) in French Guiana. Bot Rev 63:303–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Taylor P, Asner G, Dahlin K et al (2015) Landscape-scale controls on aboveground forest carbon stocks on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica. PLoS One 10.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126748
  73. ter Steege H, Pitman NCA, Sabatier D et al (2013) Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora. Science 342.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1243092
  74. Tochen S, Woltz JM, Dalton DT et al (2016) Humidity affects populations of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in blueberry. J Appl Entomol 140:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tuomisto H, Zuquim G, Cárdenas G (2014) Species richness and diversity along edaphic and climatic gradients in Amazonia. Ecography 37:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ulyshen MD (2011) Arthropod vertical stratification in temperate deciduous forests: implications for conservation-oriented management. For Ecol Manag 261:1479–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ulyshen MD, Hanula JL (2009) Habitat associations of saproxylic beetles in the southeastern United States: a comparison of forest types, tree species and wood postures. For Ecol Manag 257:653–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ulyshen MD, Sheehan TN (2017) Trap height considerations for detecting two economically important forest beetle guilds in southeastern US forests. J Pest Sci.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-017-0883-7
  79. Vodka Š, Cizek L (2013) The effects of edge-interior and understorey-canopy gradients on the distribution of saproxylic beetles in a temperate lowland forest. For Ecol Manag 304:33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wardhaugh CW (2014) The spatial and temporal distributions of arthropods in forest canopies: uniting disparate patterns with hypotheses for specialisation. Biol Rev 89:1021–1041CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Wardhaugh CW, Stork NE, Edwards W (2012) Feeding guild structure of beetles on Australian tropical rainforest trees reflects microhabitat resource availability. J Anim Ecol 2012:1086–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Warrant E (1999) Seeing better at night: life style, eye design and the optimum strategy of spatial and temporal summation. Vis Res 39:1611–1630CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Weiss M, Procházka J, Schlaghamerský J, Cizek L (2016) Fine-scale vertical stratification and guild composition of saproxylic beetles in lowland and montane forests: similar patterns despite low faunal overlap. PLoS One 11.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149506
  84. Wolda H (1988) Insect seasonality: why? Annu Rev Ecol Syst 19:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wolda H, O’Brien CW, Stockwell HP (1998) Weevil diversity and seasonality in tropical Panama as deduced from light-trap catches (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Smithson Contrib Zool (590):1–79Google Scholar
  86. Wright JS, Fu R, Worden JR et al (2017) A rainforest-initiated wet season onset over the southern Amazon. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1621516114
  87. Zhu R (2016) Judging a beetle by its cover: Correlated evolution of body color and compound eye phenotype (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Masters dissertation, City College of New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection.  2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, City College and the Graduate CenterThe City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Division of Invertebrate ZoologyThe American Museum of Natural HistoryNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations