Effectuation, Causation and the Revised Uppsala Model: A Behavioral Analysis of Iranian SMEs’ Internationalization

  • Kamal SakhdariEmail author
  • Shima Saniei
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


This study examines the boundary conditions of the emerging international entrepreneurship theories in explaining the internationalization of firms in the novel context of Iran. For this purpose, the alternate template strategy is employed to assess the extent to which the behaviors undertaken by the Iranian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to enter international markets are consistent with the emerging theories of international entrepreneurship, namely causation, effectuation and the revised Uppsala model. Our multiple case study approach indicates that behaviours suggested by the similar theories of effectuation and revised Uppsala model are dominant among the cases; yet when firms perceive lower level of uncertainty in a market or are not faced with the lack of resource availability, they show causal behaviour. These results provide a better understanding of the process of SMEs’ internationalization in developing countries.


Internationalization Effectuation Causation The revised Uppsala model Developing country Iran 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EntrepreneurshipUniversity of TehranTehranIran

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