Gender and Entrepreneurship: Recent Developments in MENA (Middle East and North Africa)

  • Stephen Hill
  • Elie Akhrass
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


This chapter looks at the recent development of early-stage entrepreneurship in the MENA region with an emphasis on the evolution of women’s early stage entrepreneurship, and in particular whether an increase in female participation in enterprise could be driving an increase in entrepreneurship for the region as a whole. Data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Adult Population Surveys in MENA countries since 2009, conducted as part of an international collaborative research project, is used to describe the recent development of entrepreneurship in the region, and to test the association between changing relative participation by gender and the overall level of early stage entrepreneurship. Since 2012 the ratio of male to female entrepreneurship in the MENA region overall has declined while the level of overall entrepreneurship has increased, although with substantial variation by MENA country.


Entrepreneurship Gender Economic development Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Hill
    • 1
  • Elie Akhrass
    • 1
  1. 1.UK Lebanon TechHubBeirutLebanon

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