From Mycorrhizosphere to Rhizosphere Microbiome: The Paradigm Shift
Mycorrhizosphere or the niche of mycorrhizal roots, is made of diverse microorganisms and represents a complex phenomenon in terms of microbe–root–environment interactions. The microbiome refers to coolective genome of all asociated microrganisms in the region. Synthetic microbial consortia, i.e., co-cultures of microbial species with specific functions such as biofertilizers or biocontrol agents that are developed to accomplish specific targets of crop productivity in agroecosystems, are mainly based on management of these microbial interactions. In order to develop a viable system for increasing soil fertility and crop production through application of these bioinoculants, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the diversity, interactions, and functioning of microbiome associated with roots. The present chapter introduces paradigm shift from usage of term mycorrhizosphere to microbiome of mycorrhizal roots, along with certain important concepts like core and minimal communities, rhizosphere engineering, etc. The content is divided into different sections, which deal with diversity, interaction, and management of mycorrhizal microbiome for better plant health and crop productivity.
KeywordsArbuscular mycorrhiza Rhizosphere engineering Rhizomicrobiome Plant health
MMG and AA are grateful to the University Grants Commission for funding the UGC-Major Project MRP-MAJOR-BOTA-2013-21235.
- Bansal M, Mukerji KG (1996) Root exudates in rhizosphere biology. In: Mukerji KG, Singh VP, Dwivedi S (eds) Concepts in applied microbiology and biotechnology. Aditya, New Delhi, pp 98–120Google Scholar
- Bell TH, Hurteau BC, Al-Otaibi F, Turmel MC, Yergeau E, Courchesne F, St-Arnaud M (2015) Early rhizosphere microbiome composition is related to the growth and Zn uptake of willows introduced to a former landfill. J Environ Biol 17:3025–3038Google Scholar
- Berg G, Rube M, Schloter M, Smalla K (2014) Unraveling the plant microbiome: looking back and future perspectives. Front Microbiol 5:1–7Google Scholar
- Bulgarelli D, Rott M, Schlaeppi K, Ver Loren van Themaat E, Ahmadinejad N, Assenza F, Rauf P, Huettel B, Reinhardt R, Schmelzer E, Peplies J, Gloeckner FO, Amann R, Eickhorst T, Schulze-Lefert P (2012) Revealing structure and assembly cues for Arabidopsis root-inhabiting bacterial microbiota. Nature 488:91–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dennis CY, Jennifer AM, Thomas KW (1998) Rhizoremediation of trichloroethylene by a recombinant, root-colonizing Pseudomonas fluorescens strain expressing toluene ortho-monooxygenase constitutively. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:112–118Google Scholar
- Kiers ET, West SA, Wyatt GA, Gardner A, Bücking H, Werner GD (2016) Misconceptions on the application of biological market theory to the mycorrhizal symbiosis. Nat Plants 2:160–163Google Scholar
- Linderman RG (2008) The mycorrhizosphere phenomenon. In: Feldman F, Kapulnik Y, Barr J (eds) Mycorrhiza works. Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft, Braunschweig, pp 341–355Google Scholar
- McNear DH Jr (2013) The rhizosphere—roots, soil and everything in between. Nat Educ Knowl 4:1Google Scholar
- Raaijmakers JM (2015) The minimal rhizosphere microbiome. In: Lugtenberg B (ed) Principles of plant-microbe interactions. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 411–417Google Scholar
- Shi S, Nuccio EE, Shi ZJ, He Z, Zhou J, Firestone MK, Johnson N (2016) The interconnected rhizosphere: high network complexity dominates rhizosphere assemblages. Ecol Lett 1–11Google Scholar
- Valverde A, Pieter DM, Oberholster T, Henschel J, LouwM K, Donald C (2016) Specific microbial communities associate with the rhizosphere of Welwitschia mirabilis, a living fossil. PLoS One 11:1–11Google Scholar