Smart and Sustainable Cities: What Is Smart?—What Is Sustainable?
“Smart cities” are cities using information and modern communications technology to connect activities hitherto unconnected. This became a buzzword supported by a variety of interests including, among others, the producers of knowledge-based consulting services making use of “big-data” collections. Four examples of smart cities applications are presented. “Sustainable cities” are those that meet the needs of their present citizens without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs, reconciling the environmental, social and economic “pillars” of long- term durability. Sustainability applies at the levels of individual buildings, neighborhoods, entire cities, their peripheries and their regions. Benchmarking aims at systematically comparing sustainability in space and time, at each of these geographic levels. Focus is put on assessment criteria reflecting political orientations. Three pioneering examples are presented.
KeywordsSmart Big data Energy Transnational Assessment Global Local Sustainable
- Bader, N., & Bleidschwitz, R. (2009). GHG study report. Bruges: College of Europe.Google Scholar
- Blondel, V. (2013). Les promesses du Big Data. La Recherche, 482.Google Scholar
- Jaivin, L. (2014). The end of secrets. Accessed at: April 31, 2017, from https://www.themonthly.com.au/issue/2014/june/1401544800/linda-jaivin/end-secrets.
- Laconte, P. (2003). Smart growth in Spain. Urban land Europe, Autumn 2003. London: Urban Land Institute.Google Scholar
- Laconte, P., & Gossop, C. (Eds.). (2016). Sustainable cities. Assessing the performance and practice of urban environments. London: I. B. Tauris. Accessed at: May 1, 2017, from http://www.ffue.org/2015/12/sustainable-urban-environments-in-europe-evaluation-criteria-and-practices/.
- Laconte, P. (2016). The founding and development of Louvain-la-Neuve, the only new town in Belgium. In Historical perspectives—“History, Urbanism, Resilience”, International Planning History Society Proceedings, 17th IPHS Conference (Vol. 5, pp. 211–222). Delft: IPHS.Google Scholar
- Libbe, J. L. (2016). IKT/Digitalisierung und Smart CityVorbereitung DASL Jahrestagung 2017 Neue Dynamik in Metropolregionen—Planung in unübersichtlichen Zeiten. Berlin: DIFU, Deutsches Institutfür Urbanistik.Google Scholar
- McDonough, W., & Braungart, N. (2013). Cradle to cradle: Remaking the way we make things. USA: Rodale Press/North Point Press.Google Scholar
- Mulhall, D., & Braungart, M. (2016). Transforming the psychology of emissions. In P. Laconte & C. Gossop (Eds.), Sustainable cities. Assessing the performance and practice of urban environments. London: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
- Stern, N. (2006). The Stern review on the economics of climate change. London: HMSO. Accessed at: May 1, 2017, from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100407172811/http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/stern_review_report.htm.
- International Association of Public Transport—UITP. (2017). Autonomous vehicles: Potential game changer for urban mobility. In UITP policy brief. Brussels: International Association of Public Transport. Accessed at: May 1, 2017, from http://www.uitp.org/news/autonomous-vehicles-urban-mobility.
- World Commission on Environment and Development—WCED. (1987). Report of the world commission on environment and development: Our common future (the Brundtland Report). New York: WCED.Google Scholar