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Cardiovascular Pharmacology in Adult Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

  • Ali Dabbagh
  • Ardeshir Tajbakhsh
  • Zahra Talebi
  • Samira Rajaei
Chapter

Abstract

The word “drug” originated from a French word “drogue,” which also came from “droge-vate” from Middle Dutch meaning “dry barrels” (Harper, Douglas. “drug ”. Online Etymology Dictionary ). This concept is referring to the preservation of pharmaceutical plants in barrels. As Claude Bernard quoted in 1865, “everything is poisonous, nothing is poisonous, and it is all a matter of dose” (Bernard, Claude. An introduction to the study of experimental study; 1865). Therefore in this chapter, we are reviewing some clinical pharmacological titles including inotropes, vasoactive agents, diuretics, antihypertensive agents, anti-arrhythmic agents, anesthetic drugs, agents affecting autonomic nervous systems, anticoagulation and thrombolysis drugs, blood products, and antibiotics.

In this chapter, we emphasize on main clinical consideration and dosage in addition to indications and contraindications, in other words when will the drug be poisonous as quoted above. The aim of this chapter is to have a practical, clinical, and logical approach in pharmaceutical management of patients with heart disease.

Keywords

Heart disease Cardiology Cardiac medications Adult cardiac surgery Pharmacology Vasoactive agents Inotropes Phenylephrine hydrochloride Vasopressin Epinephrine Dopamine hydrochloride Norepinephrine bitartrate Levophed Milrinone lactate Dobutamine phosphate Levosimendan Glyceryl trinitrate Nitroglycerin Hydralazine Prostaglandin E1 Alprostadil Sodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate Sodium nitroprusside Phentolamine mesylate Phentolamine Regitine Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) Diuretics Pulmonary hypertension Nitric oxide Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE 5) inhibitors Endothelin receptor blockers Anti-arrhythmic agents Analgesic agents Sedative drugs Intravenous anesthetic agents Ramsay sedation scale (Ramsay) Sedation-agitation scale (SAS) Richmond agitation-sedation scale (RASS) Volatile anesthetics Neuromuscular blocking agents Stress ulcer Anticoagulants (oral and parenteral forms) Antiplatelet agents Thrombolytic agents Novel oral anticoagulants Antifibrinolytic agents Antibiotic prophylaxis 

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ali Dabbagh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ardeshir Tajbakhsh
    • 3
  • Zahra Talebi
    • 4
  • Samira Rajaei
    • 5
  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine, Cardiac Anesthesiology Department, Anesthesiology Research CenterShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Cardiac Anesthesiology Fellowship ProgramShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Anesthesiology Department, Anesthesiology Research Center, Faculty of MedicineShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  4. 4.Anesthesiology Research CenterShahid Beheshti University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  5. 5.Department of Immunology, School of MedicineTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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