Fundamentals of Flexible Endoscopy for General Surgeons

  • Robert D. Fanelli


The techniques, equipment, and numerous important clinical refinements in flexible endoscopy throughout history have been influenced largely by surgeons seeking less invasive alternatives for their patients. From the beginning, when rigid metal tubes were used to inspect the most proximal and distal ends of the gastrointestinal tract using external light reflected by head-mounted mirrors, surgeon-innovators have advanced the field of endoscopy and have contributed to many parallel advancements in related medical and surgical fields. The advent, and subsequent refinement of flexible endoscopes, has provided a platform upon which increasingly less invasive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches have been developed and never before possible procedures performed. During recent decades, flexible endoscopy has regained its position of prominence in the surgical armamentarium and once again is recognized as an essential component of surgical practice and, now, is required as part of the board certification process for surgical graduates. Flexible endoscopy accounts for a significant volume of procedures performed by general surgeons across diverse practice settings. This important set of skills will remain central to the practice of general surgery well into the foreseeable future.


Endoscopy EGD Gastroscopy Colonoscopy PEG ERCP EUS Surgical endoscopy 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert D. Fanelli
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryThe Guthrie ClinicSayreUSA
  2. 2.The Geisinger Commonwealth School of MedicineScrantonUSA
  3. 3.Albany Medical CollegeAlbanyUSA

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