Over years, neurosurgical training is changing: sophisticated clinical skills to learn are challenged by catastrophic consequences in case of surgical mistakes, and patient safety and procedure efficacy have a higher priority than educational training. Practice, though, is the mainstay for surgical learning and skills improvement, and simulation models provide training opportunity in a safe and controlled environment.
Nowadays the virtual reality simulation allows reliable three-dimensional human model reproduction in a broad scope of anatomical variants.
ImmersiveTouch reality enables training of hand-eye coordination and acquisition of sophisticated psychomotor skills by providing both visual and haptic feedback. Different modules have been developed, from the simplest lumbar puncture to the most complicated aneurysm clipping procedure. Through hand and head electromagnetic tracking, the ImmersiveTouch system computes viewer’s perspective around the virtual anatomic model, making the experience even more realistic.
The score system of each module is based on the accuracy of the procedure performed and allows objective skills assessment. The effective enhancing capacity of ImmersiveTouch modules on trainee skills has been verified in several studies of repeated practice and of comparison of in vivo procedural outcomes before and after simulation training.
ImmersiveTouch simulator, though, seems to be the answer to the needs of moving toward a more standardized neurosurgical educational training in a safer environment.
ImmersiveTouch Simulation Neurosurgical education Training modules Spine Ventriculostomy Aneurysm clipping
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Suri A, Patra DP, Meena RK. Simulation in neurosurgery: past, present and future. Neurol India. 2016;64(3):387–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Polavarapu HV, Kulaylat AN, Sun S, et al. 100 years of surgical education: the past, present, and future. Bull Am Coll Surg. 2013 Jul;98(7):22–7.Google Scholar
Lemole M, Banerjee P, Luciano C, et al. Virtual reality in neurosurgical education: part-task ventriculostomy simulation with dynamic visual and haptic feedback. Neurosurgery. 2007;61(1):142–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Bradley P. The history of simulation in medical education and possible future directions. Med Educ. 2006;40:254–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Choudhury N, Gèlinas-Phaneuf N, Delorme S, et al. Fundamentals of neurosurgery: virtual reality tasks for training and evaluation of technical skills. World Neurosurg. 2013;80(5):9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aggarwal R, Black SA, Hance JR, et al. Virtual reality simulation training can improve inexperienced surgeons’ endovascular skills. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2006;31:588–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Lugana MP, de Reijke TM, Hessel W, et al. Training in laparoscopic urology. Curr Opin Urol. 2006;16:65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yudkowsky R, Luciano C, Banerjee P, et al. Practice on an augmented reality/haptic simulator and library of virtual brains improves residents’ ability to perform a ventriculostomy. Society for Simulation in Healthcare. 2013;8(1):25–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernardo A, Preul MC, , Zabramsky JM et al. A three-dimensional interactive virtual dissection model to simulate transpetrous surgical avenues. Neurosurgery 2003; 52:499–505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Kockro RA, Serra L, Tseng-Tsai Y, et al. Planning and simulation of neurosurgery in a virtual reality environment. Neurosurgery. 2000;46:118–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Kockro RA, Hwang PY. Virtual temporal bone: an interactive 3-dimensional learning aid for cranial base surgery. Neurosurgery. 2009;64(Suppl 2):216–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Malone HR, Syed ON, Downes MS, et al. Simulation in neurosurgery: a review of computer-based simulation environments and their surgical applications. Neurosurgery. 2010;67:1105–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Luciano C, Banerjee P, Lemole GM Jr, et al. Second generation haptic ventriculostomy simulator using the ImmersiveTouch system. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2006;119:343–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Alaraj A, Charbel T, Birk D, et al. Role of cranial and spinal virtual and augmented reality simulation using ImmersiveTouch modules in neurosurgical training. Neurosurgery. 2013;72(Suppl 1):115–23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Banerjee P, Luciano C, Lemole M, et al. Accuracy of ventriculostomy catheter placement using a head- and hand-tracked high-resolution virtual reality simulator with haptic feedback. J Neurosurg. 2007;107:515–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Shakur S, Luciano C, Kania P, et al. Usefulness of a virtual reality percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomy simulator in neurosurgical training. Operative Neurosurgery. 2015;11(3):420–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gasco J, Patel A, Luciano C, et al. A novel virtual reality simulation for hemostasis in a brain surgical cavity: perceived utility for visuomotor skills in current and aspiring neurosurgery resident. World Neurosurg. 2013;80(96):732–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Alaraj A, Luciano C, Bailey D, et al. Virtual reality cerebral aneurysm clipping simulation with real-time haptic feedback. Neurosurgery. 2015;11(2):52–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Gasco J, Patel A, Ortega-Barnett J, et al. Virtual reality spine surgery simulation: an empirical study of its usefulness. Neurol Res. 2014;36(11):968–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Luciano C, Banerjee P, Bellotte B, et al. Learning retention of thoracic pedicle screw placement using a high-resolution augmented reality simulator with haptic feedback. Operative. Neurosurgery. 2011;69(1):14–9.Google Scholar
Luciano C, Banerjee P, Sorenson J, et al. Percutaneous spinal fixation simulation with virtual reality and haptics. Neurosurgery. 2013;72(suppl 1):89–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Gasco J, Holbrook TJ, Patel A, et al. Neurosurgery simulation in residency traininig: feasibility, cost, and educational benefit. Neurosurgery. 2013;73(4):39–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar