Brazilian Phlebotomines as Hosts and Vectors of Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi, Protozoa (Excluding Those Belonging to the Genus Leishmania) and Nematodes

  • Jeffrey J. Shaw
  • Amélia T. de Rosa
  • Ana Cecilia Cruz
  • Pedro Fernando da C. Vasconcelos


Many microorganisms—ranging from viruses, bacteria, entomophthoralic fungi, trypanosomatids and aseptate gregarines to Tylenchida and Spirurida nematodes (Warburg 1991)—have been isolated from American sand flies. Their importance as vectors of Leishmania species has eclipsed their role as vectors or hosts of other organisms except for Bartonellosis. In the case of trypanosomatids, studies on leishmaniasis have generated, directly or indirectly, most of the information that currently exists on these different parasites. In this chapter, we refer to findings of other monoaxenic parasites, including protozoa and bacteria, which can affect leishmanial vector efficiency. Eclectic feeding habits are responsible for epidemiological situations, in which viruses are transmitted between different vertebrates.



The authors are grateful to Dr. Robert Tesh and Thiago Vasconcelos for their helpful comments and input.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey J. Shaw
    • 1
  • Amélia T. de Rosa
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ana Cecilia Cruz
    • 3
  • Pedro Fernando da C. Vasconcelos
    • 3
  1. 1.Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.University of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  3. 3.Instituto Evandro Chagas, Secretaria de Vigilância em SaúdeAnanindeuaBrazil

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