Eco-Epidemiology of American Visceral Leishmaniasis with Particular Reference to Brazil

  • Elizabeth F. RangelEmail author
  • Ralph Lainson
  • Margarete M. S. Afonso
  • Jeffrey J. Shaw


American Visceral Leishmaniasis (AVL) is a zoonotic disease that is endemic in rural and urban areas. Dogs are the principal reservoirs and its recent expansion in Brazil is due to the rapid spread of the principal vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. This is a sylvatic sand fly, that readily adapts to domestic and peri-domestic ecological niches, especially in de-forested areas. It consists of cryptic sibling species that are identifiable by their chemical (pheromones), behavioural and molecular characters. Not all cryptic species are expanding equally. In some eastern areas AVL is transmitted by a closely related species Lu. cruzi. Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum has been found in 14 other Brazilian phlebotomine species. Of these there is strong evidence that Lu. almerio, Migonemyia migonei and Pintomyia fischeri are AVL vectors in areas where Lu. longipalpis has not been found.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth F. Rangel
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ralph Lainson
    • 2
  • Margarete M. S. Afonso
    • 1
  • Jeffrey J. Shaw
    • 3
  1. 1.Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo CruzRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto Evandro ChagasBelémBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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