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Priming Time: How Cellular Proteases Arm Coronavirus Spike Proteins

  • Markus Hoffmann
  • Heike Hofmann-Winkler
  • Stefan Pöhlmann
Chapter

Abstract

Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that infect mammals and birds. Infection of humans with globally circulating human coronaviruses is associated with the common cold. In contrast, transmission of animal coronaviruses to humans can result in severe disease: The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) are responsible for hundreds of deaths in Asia and the Middle East, respectively, and are both caused by members of the genus Betacoronavirus, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV that were zoonotically transmitted from an animal host to humans. At present, neither vaccines nor specific treatment is available to combat coronavirus infection in humans, and novel antiviral strategies are urgently sought. The viral spike protein (S) mediates the first essential step in coronavirus infection, viral entry into target cells. For this, the S protein critically depends on priming by host cell proteases, and the responsible enzymes are potential targets for antiviral intervention. Recent studies revealed that the endosomal cysteine protease cathepsin L and the serine proteases furin and TMPRSS2 prime the S proteins of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and provided evidence that successive S protein cleavage at two sites is required for S protein priming. Moreover, mechanisms that control protease choice were unraveled, and insights were obtained into which enzyme promotes viral spread in the host. Here, we will provide basic information on S protein function and proteolytic priming, and we will then discuss recent progress in our understanding of the priming of the S proteins of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.

Keywords

Coronaviruses Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) Spike protein (S) TMPRSS2 Furin Cathepsin L 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markus Hoffmann
    • 1
  • Heike Hofmann-Winkler
    • 1
  • Stefan Pöhlmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Infection Biology UnitGerman Primate CenterGöttingenGermany

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