The Role of the Insula in the Non-motor Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease
While Parkinson’s disease (PD) is perhaps most well-known for its effect on motor functionality, it is important to also realize that this disease has a host of non-motor symptoms (NMS) that affect patients’ day-to-day lives through neurological pathways as well. This chapter will review the literature regarding a connection between these non-motor symptoms and the insula and attempt to show that the insula has a role in facilitating these symptoms. In order to do this, this paper will first discuss what insula is and then identify non-motor symptoms of PD and some possible treatments for these symptoms, followed by discussion of the known effects of these treatments on neural tissue and, specifically, the insula. Based on reports from the literature, there is a possible link between the insula and the NMS of PD as expressed through the relationship between the treatment of these NMS and the effects these treatments have on the insula as well as the knowledge that many of the non-motor symptoms we see presented by PD fall under the category of bodily functions the insula has been shown to contribute to controlling.
KeywordsInsula Parkinson’s Non-motor Treatments Connections
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