The HaramBuntu-Government-Diaspora Relationship Management Theory
The brain circulation phenomenon addresses the two-way dynamic migration patterns of Africa’s Diaspora publics, particularly from and to their host and home countries. In exchange for the various capital that the Diaspora bring to their African home countries, many of these Diaspora members seek to integrate within the socio-economic and political tapestries of their home countries. However, the relationship between some African governments and their Diaspora publics is challenged, as a result of perceived distrust from both parties and infrastructural limitations that results in missed opportunities for a nation’s development. This chapter introduces the HaramBuntu-Government-Diaspora Communications Theory (HGDCT) to support African governments’ communicative efforts in managing relationships with their Diaspora publics to motivate them to invest in their home countries. Guided by a modification of the original three-stage relationship management framework, the HGDCT is grounded in African collectivistic values, coined in an original term, HaramBuntu, which stems from Kenya’s “Harambee” and South Africa’s “Ubuntu.” The theory departs from a prescriptive, two-way dialogic, symmetrical “best” practice Western, Excellent model of public relations. Instead, it prioritizes African cultural values as the bedrock of relationship-building and incorporates insight from each party to provide data-driven, meaningful solutions in nation-building.
- Brønn, P., & Brønn, C. (2000). A Reflective Stakeholder Approach: Co-orientation as a Basis for Communication and Learning. 7th International Public Relations Research Symposium, Bled, Slovenia. Retrieved from http://home.bi.no/fgl96053/bled2000.pdf.
- Carrozzino-Lyon, A. (2012). Characterization and Communicative Analysis of Wildlife Managers and Recreational Users of Virginia’s Wildlife Management Areas. Dissertation Thesis. Retrieved from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-06052012-132041/unrestricted/CarrozzinoLyon_AL_D_2012.pdf.
- Celine. (2017). Difference Between Models and Theories. Difference Between.net. Retrieved from http://www.differencebetween.net/language/words-language/difference-between-models-and-theories/.
- Daugeliene, R., & Marcinkeviciene, R. (2009). Brain Circulation: Theoretical Considerations. Engineering Economics, 63, 47–59. Retrieved from http://www.ktu.lt/lt/mokslas/zurnalai/inzeko/63/1392-2758-2009-3-63-49.pdf.Google Scholar
- Deutsch, K. W. (1966). Nationalism and Social Communication: An Inquiry into the Foundations of Nationality. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Firsing, S. (2016). How Severe Is Africa’s Brain Drain? Retrieved from https://qz.com/599140/how-severe-is-africas-brain-drain/.
- Hon, L. C., & Grunig, J. E. (1999). Guidelines for Measuring Relationships in Public Relations. Gainseville, FL: The Institute for Public Relations. Retrieved from http://www.aco.nato.int/resources/9/conference%202011/guidelines_measuring_relationships.pdf.Google Scholar
- Hung, C. F. (2002). The Interplays of Relationship Types, Relationship Cultivation, and Relationship Outcomes: How Multinational and Taiwanese Companies Practice Public Relations and Organization-Public Relationship Management in China. Dissertation Thesis. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database. UMI Number 3115706.Google Scholar
- Maathai, W. (2006). Foresters Without Diplomas. In W. Matthai (Ed.), Unbowed. New York: Random House, Inc.Google Scholar
- Mpande, S. (2015). Relationship Management of the ‘Brain Circulation’ Phenomenon: The Case of the Ugandan Government and Its Ugandan Diaspora in the United States. Dissertation Thesis.Google Scholar
- Rhee, Y. (2004). The Employee-Public Organization Chain in Relationship Management: A Case Study of a Government Organization. Institute for Public Relations Website. Retrieved from http://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2003_Rhee.pdf.
- Saeed, R., Naeem, B., Bilal, M., & Naz, U. (2013). Integrated Marketing Communication: A Review Paper. Retrieved from http://journal-archieves35.webs.com/124-133.pdf.
- Trisler, S. (2010). Using Co-orientation to Investigate the Views and Perceptions of Communications Held by the Public Relations Director and Superintendent in Two Indiana School Districts. Masters Thesis. Retrieved from http://cardinalscholar.bsu.edu/bitstream/123456789/193380/1/TrislerS_2010-3_BODY.pdf.