Water Quality: Mindanao Island of the Philippines

  • Angelo Mark P. Walag
  • Oliva P. Canencia
  • Beth Ann Fiedler


The Philippines is an archipelagic country dominated by water and inland water sources. Water quality has been the subject of attention for the country and specifically, Mindanao Island, because of the role this natural resource plays in agriculture. Water supply and usage for the island and the nation are identified and discussed in relation to the scarcity of potable water. Potential threats and pollution hotspots bring forth the various health and environmental impact attributed to the water system accessibility, distribution, and quality. Strategies addressing water resources problems are taken into consideration side-by-side the numerous national laws, policies, standards, and guidelines in addressing water quality control and management. Therefore, the legal framework for various agencies to carry out these policies on quality control, usage, and water management are pivotal to recommendations on revision of certain provisions that rely on embedding local community involvement to lessen the environmental impact that is causal to poor population health. The World Bank has been instrumental in prompting local activity with initiatives first established in relation to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals that are being carried forward today in the Sustainable Development Initiatives. This chapter extends the recent UN and World Bank initiatives to demonstrate how further community involvement can continue to improve quality of life for Philippine citizens through education and participation.


Community involvement Water monitoring Water quality Public health Water shortage 



The authors would like to acknowledge the United Nations, World Health Organization, and the World Bank for access to their outstanding resources. The authors accept responsibility for all analysis and interpretation.


Biological oxygen demand (BOD)

Amount of oxygen dissolved in water required for the survival of microorganisms.


Bacteria commonly found in soil, water, and in the guts of animals, which indicate that the water supply may be vulnerable to contamination.

Dissolved oxygen (DO)

Amount of diatomic oxygen dissolved in water.


Refers to the utilization of water for drinking, washing, cooking, bathing, and other household chores and needs.


Wastewater discharged from a sewage treatment facility or an industrial plant.


Utilization of water for the needs of factories, industrial plants, and mines.


Controlled application of water for agricultural uses through man-made systems to supply water requirements not satisfied by precipitation.


Utilization of water for supplying the water needs of the community.

Potable water

Water that is safe for consumption or food preparation with no risk to health.

Seawater Intrusion

The natural phenomenon where freshwater is contaminated with seawater because of overdraft—extracting too much water that leads to an unsafe imbalance in water quality.


Collective term used for drains, canals, manholes, pumping stations, and screening chambers for disposal of sewage and surface water.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

Synthetic chemical compounds dissolved in water which can be vaporized at low temperatures.


Water that has been used for various purposes in homes, industries, businesses that is not meant for reuse unless it is treated for contaminants.

Water Quality Management Area

Certain water bodies and its tributaries identified by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR ) to be prioritized for protection and conservation.

Water Right

The right granted by the government to appropriate and use water.


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Further Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angelo Mark P. Walag
    • 1
  • Oliva P. Canencia
    • 2
  • Beth Ann Fiedler
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Science EducationUniversity of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines, College of Science and Technology EducationCagayan de OroPhilippines
  2. 2.Research DivisionUniversity of Science and Technology of Southern Philippines, College of Science and MathematicsCagayan de OroPhilippines
  3. 3.Independent Research AnalystJacksonvilleUSA

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