Genetic Basis of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia

  • Anushree Bose
  • Venkataram Shivakumar
  • Ganesan Venkatasubramanian


This chapter attempts to summarize the existing literature in the domain of genetic basis of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. The proposed theoretical bases for hallucinations and their relevant neural substrates in the context of specific genes are discussed—these include language pathways, source monitoring deficits, aberrant salience, and dysregulated emotional valence. The key genes that have been implicated include FOXP2, dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1), dopamine system genes, cholecystokinin, serotonergic genes, as well as microdeletion of the long arm of 22q11.2 chromosome. Future research with more robust methodology should replicate the present genetic findings as many of the present studies are limited by small sample size. These studies should be aimed at uncovering links between neurobiological parameters of auditory hallucination and gene-gene/gene-environment interactions. The complexity of genetic interactions with respect to the pathophysiology of auditory hallucinations is in need of further discourse and scientific elucidation.



This work is supported by the Department of Science and Technology (Government of India) Research Grant to GV (DST/SJF/LSA-02/2014-5). AB is supported by the Department of Science and Technology (DST/SJF/LSA-02/2014-5).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anushree Bose
    • 1
  • Venkataram Shivakumar
    • 1
  • Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
    • 1
  1. 1.InSTAR Program, Schizophrenia Clinic, Department of PsychiatryNational Institute of Mental Health and NeurosciencesBengaluruIndia

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