Advertisement

Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses

  • Peter Hartwich
  • Georg Northoff
Chapter

Abstract

Schizophrenia is a complex disorder that shows various symptoms which, as emphasized in older and recent psychopathological approaches, can be traced to a basic disturbance of the self with “self-fragmentation” (Kohut) of its spatiotemporal structure. Our neuropsychodynamic perspective focuses on the basic disturbance of self and its underlying neuropsychodynamic mechanisms—the latter are considered spatiotemporal at their very core as they focus on the spatiotemporal relation or alignment of the brain’s spontaneous activity to the respective environmental context the world.

We will explain how findings of neurobiological research of abnormalities in the brain open a new understanding of the etiopathogenesis and psychodynamic of psychotic diseases.

An abnormal resting state activity and imbalance between anterior and posterior midline regions (hyperconnectivity) correspond with disturbances of the self. The disbalance between default mode network and central executive network, lateral regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortex on the neural level, seems to mirror the confusion of external and internal mental content, which is on the neuropsychodynamic level a “self-environment blurring.” Such “self-environment blurring” leads to what psychodynamically has been described as loss of ego boundary (Federn, Freud) with “abnormal cathexis.” We consecutively describe examples of the investment energy “cathexis” in different psychotic qualities: hypocathexis, oscillating cathexis, decathexis, anticathexis, paracathexis, and hypercathexis.

How is such abnormal cathexis related to the different symptoms? On the clinical neuropsychodynamic level, we see the psychotic patient’s counter-regulation to restore the spatiotemporal structure of the self as a paraconstruction. Many symptoms are the result of different qualities of paraconstruction, which we describe in examples for particular cases, e.g., delusion of pregnancy, delusion of love, Othello syndrome, catatonic and coenesthetic syndrome, etc.

These compensatory mechanisms in psychosis do not reach the structural level of defense mechanisms as it was described in neuroses; therefore, it is necessary to create the concept of neuropsychodynamic paraconstruction which is to be understood in an unfolding matrix which is biological and psychodynamic as well.

One of the results is a paradigm shift of the therapist, who understands paraconstruction as a necessary protection for the self, which is in danger to fragment, and who should use treatment methods which are helpful beyond the symptoms in order to strengthen the spatiotemporal structure of the self.

Keywords

Fragmentation of the spatiotemporal structure of the self Abnormal neuronal findings in schizophrenia Investment energy “cathexis” and cathexis variants Concept of paraconstruction: counter-regulation to restore the spatiotemporal structure of the self Approaches to neuropsychodynamic treatment 

References

  1. Abély P. Le signe du miroir dans les psychoses et plus spécialement dans la démence précoce. Ann Med Psychol. 1930;88:28–36.Google Scholar
  2. Aderhold V, Weinmann S, Hägele C, Heinz A. Frontale Hirnvolumenminderung durch Antipsychotika? Nervenarzt. 2015;86:302–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alanen YO. Schizophrenia. Its origins and need-adapted treatment. London: Karnac books Ltd.; 1997.Google Scholar
  4. Alanen YO. Schizophrenie. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta; 2001.Google Scholar
  5. Amann BL, Canales-Rodriges EJ, Madre M, et al. Brain structural changes in schizoaffective disorder compared to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2016;133(1):23–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angst J. Verlauf unipolar depressiver, bipolar manisch-depressiver und schizoaffektiver Erkrankungen und Psychosen. Ergebnisse einer prospektiven Studie. Fortschr Neurol Psychiat. 1980;48:3–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Angst J. The course of schizoaffective disorders. In: Marneros A, Tsuang MT, editors. Schizoaffective psychoses. Berlin: Springer; 1986.Google Scholar
  8. Angst J. Epidemiologie der affektiven Psychosen. In: Kisker KP, et al., editors. Psychiatrie der Gegenwart, vol. 5. Berlin: Springer; 1987.Google Scholar
  9. Arieti S. Interpretation of schizophrenia. 2nd ed. New York: Basic Books; 1974.Google Scholar
  10. Arieti S. Creativity. New York: Basic Books, Inc.; 1976.Google Scholar
  11. Bateson G, Jackson DD, Weakland JH. Towards a theory of schizophrenia. Behav Sci. 1956;1:251–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bateson G, Jackson DD, Haley J, et al. Schizophrenie und Familie. Frankfurt/M: Suhrkamp; 1978.Google Scholar
  13. Benedetti G. Psychodynamik als Grundlagenforschung der Psychiatrie. In: Kisker KP, et al., editors. Psychiatrie der Gegenwart, Grundlagen und Methoden der Psychiatrie Bd I, vol. 1. Berlin: Springer; 1979. p. S 43–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Benedetti G. Psychotherapeutische Behandlungsmethoden. In: Kisker KP, et al., editors. Psychiatrie der Gegenwart, vol. 4. Heidelberg: Springer; 1987.Google Scholar
  15. Bleuler E. Die negative Suggestibilität, ein physiologisscher Prototyp des Negativismus, der conträren Autosuggestion und gewisser Zwangsideen. Psychiat Neurol Wochenschr. 1904;6(249–253):261–3.Google Scholar
  16. Bleuler E. Dementia praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien. Leipzig: Deuticke; 1911.Google Scholar
  17. Böker H, Northoff G. Die Entkoppelung des Selbst in der Depression: Empirische Befunde und neuropsychodynamische Hypothesen. Psyche Z Psychoanal. 2010;64:934–76.Google Scholar
  18. Broadbent DE. Decision and stress. New York: Academic Press; 1971.Google Scholar
  19. Chase HW, Moses-Kolko EL, Zevallos C, et al. Disrupted posterior cingulate-amygdala connectivity in postpartum depressed women as measured with resting BOLD fMRI. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2014;9:1069–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coen SJ. Pathological jealousy. Int J Psychoanal. 1987;68:99–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Conrad K. Die Gestaltanalyse in der Psychiatrie. Stud Gen. 1952;5:503–14.Google Scholar
  22. Conrad K. Die beginnende Schizophrenie. Stuttgart: Thieme; 1958.Google Scholar
  23. Cosgrove VE, Suppes T. Informing DSM-5: biological boundaries between bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia. BMC Med. 2013;11:127.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-11-127.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Deligiannidis KM, Sikoglu EM, Scott AS, et al. GABAergic neuroactive steroids and resting-state functional connectivity in postpartum depression: a preliminary study. J Psychiatr Res. 2013;47:816–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Delmas FA. Le signe du miroir dans la démence précoce. Ann Med Psychol. 1929;87:227–33.Google Scholar
  26. Doege K, Kumar M, Bates AT, et al. Time and frequency domain event-related electrical activity associated with response control in schizophrenia. Clin Neurophysiol. 2010;121(10):1760–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Federn P. Ichpsychologie und die Psychosen. Frankfur/M: Suhrkamp; 1978. (Erstveröff. 1956)Google Scholar
  28. Fenichel O. Beitrag zur Psychologie der Eifersucht. In: Fenichel O, editor. Aufsätze, vol. 1. Freiburg: Walter; 1935. p. 345–60.Google Scholar
  29. Fleck S. The development of schizophrenia: a psychosocial and biological approach. In: Werbart A, Cullberg J, editors. Psychotherapy of schizophrenia: facilitating and obstructive factors. Oslo: Scandinavian Univ Press; 1992. p. S 179–92.Google Scholar
  30. Freud S. Psychoanalytische Bemerkungen über einen autobiographisch beschriebenen Fall von Paranoia (Dementia paranoides) mit Nachtrag. In: GW, vol. 8. 6th ed. Frankfurt/M: Fischer; 1909–1913. p. S 239–320.Google Scholar
  31. Freud S. Psychoanalytic notes on an autobiographical account of a case of paranoia, vol. 12. Standard ed. London: Hogarth Press; 1911.Google Scholar
  32. Freud S. Neurose und Psychose. In: GW, vol. 13. 8th ed. Frankfurt/M: Fischer; 1920–1924. p. S 385–91.Google Scholar
  33. Freud S. GW, vol. 14. Frankfurt/M: Fischer; 1925–1931. p. S 299.Google Scholar
  34. Freud A. The ego and the mechanisms of defense (1936), in the writings of Anna Freud, vol. 2. revised ed. New York: International Universities Press; 1966.Google Scholar
  35. Fromm-Reichmann F. Notes on the mother role in the family group. Bull Menn Clin. 1940;4:132–45.Google Scholar
  36. Fryrear JL. The psychotic life of artist Dot Gori as told through words and art to Jerry Fryrear. In: Hartwich P, Fryrear JL, editors. Creativity: the third therapeutic principle in psychiatry. Sternenfels: Wissenschaft & Praxis; 2002.Google Scholar
  37. Fusar-Poli P, Deste G, Smieskova R, et al. Cognitive functioning in prodromal psychosis: meta-analysis of cognitive functioning in prodromal psychosis. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;69:562–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gabbard GO. Psychodynamic psychiatry in clinical practice. 5th ed. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2014. p. 21.Google Scholar
  39. Harrow M, Grossman L. Outcome in schizoaffective disorders: a critical review and reevaluation of the literature. Schizophr Bull. 1984;10:87–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hartwich P. Schizophrenie und Aufmerksamkeitsstörungen. In: Zur Psychopathologie der kognitiven Verarbeitung von Aufmerksamkeitsleistungen. Berlin: Springer; 1980.Google Scholar
  41. Hartwich P. Schizophrenien, kognitive Gesichtspunkte. In: Kisker KP, et al., editors. Psychiatrie der Gegenwart. 3rd ed. Berlin: Springer; 1987.Google Scholar
  42. Hartwich P. Die Parakonstruktion: eine Verstehensmöglichkeit schizophrener Symptome. Vortrag Frankfurter Symposion: Schizophrenien—Wege der Behandlung. In: Hartwich P, Pflug B, Herausgeber. Schizophrenien—Wege der Behandlung. Sternenfels: Wissenschaft & Praxis; 1997.Google Scholar
  43. Hartwich P. Wahn—Sinn und Antikohäsion. In: Hartwich P, Barocka A, editors. Wahn: definition, Psychodynamik, Therapie. Sternenfels: Wissenschaft & Praxis; 2004.Google Scholar
  44. Hartwich P. Schizophrenie. Zur Defekt- und Konfliktinteraktion. In: Böker H, editor. Psychoanalyse und Psychiatrie. Heidelberg: Springer; 2006a. p. S 159–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hartwich P. Schizophrene Prodromalzustände: Gibt es unterschiedliche Typen? Wie sind sie psychodynamisch zu verstehen und zu behandeln. In: Juckel G, Lempa G, Troje E, editors. Psychodynamische Therapie von Patienten im schizophrenen Prodromalzustand, Forum der psychoanalytischen Psychosentherapie, vol. 13. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht; 2006b.Google Scholar
  46. Hartwich P. Psychodynamisch orientierte Therapieverfahren bei Schizophrenien. In: Hartwich P, et al., editors. Schizophrene Erkrankungen. Sternenfels: Wissenschaft & Praxis; 2007. p. 33–98.Google Scholar
  47. Hartwich P. Bildhauerei mit psychotisch Kranken. Die Bedeutung von Kreativität und Parakonstruktion. In: Mentzos S, Münch A, editors. Das Schöpferische in der Psychose, Forum der psychoanalytischen Psychosentherapie, vol. 28. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht; 2012. p. S 56–70.Google Scholar
  48. Hartwich P. Zu Indikation und Kontraindikation für psychoanalytisch modifizierte Behandlung der verschiedenen Schizophrenieformen, Forum der psychoanalytischen Psychosentherapie, vol. 29. Göttingen: Vandenhoek & Ruprecht; 2013. p. S 111–52.Google Scholar
  49. Hartwich P, Brandecker R. Computer-based art therapy with inpatients: acute and chronic schizophrenics and borderline cases. The Arts in Psychotherapy. 1997;24(4):367–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hartwich P, Fryrear JL. Einführung. In: Hartwich P, Fryrear JL, editors. Kreativität—Das dritte therapeutische Prinzip in der Psychiatrie. Sternenfels: Wissenschaft & Praxis; 2002a.Google Scholar
  51. Hartwich P, Fryrear JL. Creativity, the third therapeutic principle in psychiatry. Sternenfels: Wissenschaft & Praxis; 2002b.Google Scholar
  52. Hartwich P, Grube M. Psychodynamische Aspekte bei der Behandlung schizoaffektiver Psychosen. In: Böker H, editor. Depression, Manie und schizoaffektive Psychosen. Gießen: Psychosozial-Verlag; 2000.Google Scholar
  53. Hartwich P, Grube M. Psychotherapie bei Psychosen. Neuropsychodynamisches Handeln in Klinik und Praxis. 3rd ed. Berlin: Springer; 2015.Google Scholar
  54. Hartwich P, Lehmkuhl G. Audiovisual self-confrontation in schizophrenia. Arch Psychiat Nervenkr. 1979;227:341–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hartwich P, Schumacher E. Zum Stellenwert der Gruppenpsychotherapie in der Nachsorge Schizophrener. Eine 5-Jahres-Verlaufsstudie. Nervenarzt. 1985;56:365–72.Google Scholar
  56. Hartwich P, Weigand-Tomiuk H. Bildhauerei mit Marmor in der Psychiatrischen Klinik. In: Hartwich P, Fryrear JL, editors. Kreativität—Das dritte therapeutische Prinzip in der Psychiatrie. Sternenfels: Wissenschaft & Praxis; 2002.Google Scholar
  57. Heimann H. Karl Wilhelm Idelers “Versuch einer Theorie des religiösen Wahnsinns”—nach 100 Jahren. Bibl Psychiat Neurol. 1957;100:68–78.Google Scholar
  58. Hering W. Schizoaffektive Psychose. In: Psychodynamik und Behandlungstechnik. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht; 2004.Google Scholar
  59. Hering W. Psychodynamische Aspekte der schizoaffektiven Psychosen. In: Böker H, editor. Psychoanalyse und Psychiatrie. Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. S 181–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Holt DJ, et al. An anterior-to-posterior shift in midline cortical activity in schizophrenia during self-reflection. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69(5):415–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Huang Z, Obara N, Davis H, Pokorny J, Northoff G. The temporal structure of resting-state brain activity in the medial prefrontal cortex predicts self-consciousness. Neuropsychologia. 2016;82(2016):161–170162.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Huber G, Penin H. Elektroenzephalogramme. Korrelationsuntersuchungen bei Schizophrenen. Fortschr Neurol Psychiat. 1968;36:641–59.Google Scholar
  63. Ideler KW. Der religiöse Wahnsinn. Halle: Schwetschke; 1847. p. 11.Google Scholar
  64. Jaspers K. Allgemeine Psychopathologie. 6th ed. Berlin: Springer; 1953.Google Scholar
  65. Javitt DC. When doors of perception close: bottom-up models of disrupted cognition in psychosis. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2009;5:249–75.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jones E. Jealousy. In: Jones E, editor. Papers of psychoanalysis. Boston: Beacon; 1967.Google Scholar
  67. Jung R. Neurophysiologie und Psychiatrie. In: Gruhle HW, et al., editors. Psychiatrie der Gegenwart. I,1, Teil A. Berlin: Springer; 1967. p. S 325–928.Google Scholar
  68. Jung CG. Über die Psychogenese der Schizophrenie. In: GW, Psychogenese der Geisteskrankheiten, vol. 3. Walter: Olten; 1979.Google Scholar
  69. Jung R. Neurophysiologie und Psychiatrie. In: Kisker KP, et al., editors. Psychiatrie der Gegenwart. I, Teil 2. 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer; 1980. p. S 753–1103.Google Scholar
  70. Kanas N. Group therapy with schizophrenics: a review of controlled studies. Int J Group Psychotherapy. 1986;36:339–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kandel E. Das Zeitalter der Erkenntnis. Die Erforschung des Unbewussten in der Kunst, Geist und Gehirn von der Wiener Moderne bis heute. München: Siedler; 2012.Google Scholar
  72. Kernberg OF. Borderline-Störungen und pathologischer Narzissmus. 2nd ed. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp; 1978.Google Scholar
  73. Klages W. Über Störungen des Raumgefühls bei Schizophrenen. Gedanken zu einer Paraordnung. In: Broekmann JM, Hofer G, editors. Die Wirklichkeit des Unverständlichen. Den Haag: Martinus Nijhoff; 1974. p. S. 241–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Klein M. New directions in psychoanalysis. New York: Basic Books; 1956.Google Scholar
  75. Klosterkoetter J. Predicting the onset of schizophrenia. In: Haefner H, editor. Risk and protective factors in schizophrenia. Darmstadt: Steinkopff; 2002. p. S 193–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Klosterkoetter J. Prävention psychotischer Störungen. Nervenarzt. 2013;84(11):1299–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Klosterkoetter J, Hellmich M, Steinmeyer EM, et al. Diagnosing schizophrenia in the initial prodromal phase. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2001;58:158–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kohut H. Narzißmus. Frankfurt/M: Suhrkamp; 1973.Google Scholar
  79. Kohut H, Wolf ES. Die Störungen des Selbst und ihre Behandlung. In: Peters UH, editor. Die Psychologie des 20. Jahrhunderts, vol. 10. Zürich: Kindler; 1980. p. S 667–82.Google Scholar
  80. Kraepelin E. Psychiatrie. Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte. 3rd ed. Leipzig: Barth; 1889.Google Scholar
  81. Kuhn TS. Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen. 2nd ed. Frankfurt/M: Suhrkamp; 1976.Google Scholar
  82. Kumpf-Tonsch A, Schmid-Siegel B, Klier CM, et al. Versorgungsstrukturen für Frauen mit postpartalen psychischen Störungen—Eine Bestandsaufnahme für Österreich. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2001;113:641–6.Google Scholar
  83. Levitt JJ, Tsuang MT. The heterogeneity of schizoaffective disorder: implications for treatment. Am J Psychiat. 1988;145:926–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lidz T, Cornelison A, Fleck S. Schizophrenia and the family. London: Tavistock; 1965.Google Scholar
  85. Madre M, Canales-Rodriges EJ, Ortiz-Gil J, et al. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging underpinnings of schizoaffective disorder: a systematic review. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2016;134(1):16–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Mahler MS. Symbiose und individuation. Stuttgart: Klett; 1972.Google Scholar
  87. Maier W, Hawallek B. Neuentwicklung in der Erforschung der Genetik der Schizophrenen. In: Möller HJ, Müller N, editors. Schizophrenie. Wien: Springer; 2004. p. S 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Marneros A, Deister A, Rohde A. Comparison of long-term outcome of schizophrenic, affective and schizoaffective disorders. Br J Psychiatry. 1992;161:44–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Martino M, Magioncalda P, Huang Z, et al. Contrasting variability patterns in the default mode and sensorimotor networks balance in bipolar depression and mania. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113(17):4824–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Mc Ghie A. Attention and perception in schizophrenia. p. 57–96. In: Maher BA, editor. Contributions to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. New York: Academic Press; 1977. p. 1–56.Google Scholar
  91. Mentzos S. Psychodynamische Modelle in der Psychiatrie. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht; 1991.Google Scholar
  92. Mentzos S. Psychodynamische und psychotherapeutische Aspekte “endogener” Psychosen. In: Hartwich P, Haas S, editors. Pharmakotherapie und Psychotherapie bei Psychosen. Sternenfels: Wissenschaft & Praxis; 1996. p. S 17–29.Google Scholar
  93. Mentzos S. Die “endogenen” Psychosen als die Psychosomatosen des Gehirns. In: Müller T, Matejek N, editors. Ätiopathogenese psychotischer Erkrankungen. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht; 2000. p. S 13–33.Google Scholar
  94. Mentzos S. Psychodynamik des Wahns. In: Schwarz F, Maier C, editors. Psychotherapie der Psychosen. Stuttgart: Thieme; 2001.Google Scholar
  95. Mentzos S. Lehrbuch der Psychodynamik. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht; 2011.Google Scholar
  96. Mueller H, Laier S, Bechdolf A. Evidence-based psychotherapy for the prevention and treatment of first-episode psychosis. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2014;264(Suppl 1):17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mulert C, Leicht G, Hepp P, et al. Single-trial coupling of the gamma-band response and the corresponding BOLD signal. NeuroImage. 2010;49(3):2238–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Northoff G. Neuropsychoanalysis in practice. Oxford: Oxford Univ Press; 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Northoff G. Das disziplinlose Gehirn—Was nun Herr Kant? Auf den Spuren unseres Bewusstseins mit der Neurophilsophie. München: Irisiana; 2012.Google Scholar
  100. Northoff G. Unlocking the brain, Coding, vol. I. Oxford: Oxford Univ Press; 2014a.Google Scholar
  101. Northoff G. Unlocking the brain, Consciousness, vol. II. Oxford: Oxford Univ Press; 2014b.Google Scholar
  102. Northoff G. Is schizophrenia a spatiotemporal disorder of the brain’s resting state? World Psychiatry. 2015;14(1):34–5.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20177.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. Northoff G. Neuro-philosophy and the healthy mind. Learning from the unwell brain. New York: W.W. Norton & Company; 2016.Google Scholar
  104. Northoff G, Boeker H. Orbitofrontal cortical dysfunction and “sensomotor regression”, a combined study of fMRI and personal constructs in catatonia. Neuropsychoanalysis. 2003;5:149–75.Google Scholar
  105. Northoff G, Qin P. How can the brain’s resting state activity generate hallucinations? A ‘resting state hypothesis’ of auditory verbal hallucinations. Schizophr Res. 2011;127:202–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Northoff G, Stanghellini G. How to link brain and experience? Spatiotemporal psychopathology of the lived body. Front Hum Neurosci. 2016;10:172.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Northoff G, Heinzel A, Bermpohl F, et al. Reciprocal modulation and attenuation in the prefrontal cortex: an fMRI study on emotional-cognitive interaction. Hum Brain Mapp. 2004;21:202–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Northoff G, Heinzel A, de Greck M, et al. Self-referential processing in our brain—a meta-nalysis of imaging studies on the self. NeuroImage. 2006;31(1):440–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Northoff G, Schneider F, Rotte M, et al. Differential parametric modulation of self-relatedness and emotions in different brain regions. Hum Brain Mapp. 2009;30(2):369–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pao PN. Pathological jealousy. Psychoanal Q. 1969;38:616–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Pao PN. Schizoprenic disorders. Theory and treatment from a psychodynamic point of view. New York: International Univ Press; 1979.Google Scholar
  112. Petrilowitsch N. Beiträge zur Strukturpsychopathologie. Basel: Karger; 1958.Google Scholar
  113. Quin P, Northoff G. How is our self related to midline regions and the default-mode network? Neuroimage. 2011;57:1221–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Riecher-Rössler A. Psychiatrische Störungen und Erkrankungen nach der Geburt. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 1997;65:97–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Robinson JJD, Nils-Frederic Wagner NF, Northoff G. Is the sense of agency in schizophrenia influenced by resting-state variation in self-referential regions of the brain? Schizophr Bull. 2015;42(2):270–6.  https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbv/102.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. Rohde A, Marneros A. Psychosen im Wochenbett: Symptomatik, Verlauf und Langzeitprognose. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1993a;53:800–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rohde A, Marneros A. Postpartum psychoses: onset and long-term course. Psychopathology. 1993b;26:203–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Rohde A, Marneros A. Zur Prognose der Wochenbettpsychosen: Verlauf und Ausgang nach durchschnittlich 26 Jahren. Nervenarzt. 1993c;64:175–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Ruhrmann S, Schultze-Lutter F, Schmidt S, et al. Prediction and prevention of psychosis: current progress and future tasks. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2014;264(Suppl 1):9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Sacks O. Foreword. In: Solms M, Turnbull O, editors. The brain and the inner world. An introduction to the neuroscience of subjective experience. London: Karnac Books Ltd; 2002. p. 12.Google Scholar
  121. Samson JA, Simpson JC, Tsuang MT. Outcome studies of schizoaffective disorders. Schizophr Bull. 1988;14:543–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sartre JP. Being and nothingness. An essay on phemonemological ontology. Translated by Barnes HE, New York: Philosophical library, Inc, L’é’tre et le néant. Essai d’ontologie phénoménologique (1943). Paris: Librairie Gallimard; 1956.Google Scholar
  123. Scharfetter C. General psychopathology. Cambridge: University Press; 1980.Google Scholar
  124. Scharfetter C. Schizophrene Menschen. 2nd ed. München: Urban & Schwarzenberg; 1986.Google Scholar
  125. Scharfetter C. Das weite Spektrum bedürfnisangepasster Therapien bei Schizophrenien. In: Hartwich P, Pflug B, editors. Schizophrenien—Wege der Behandlung. Sternenfels: Wissenschaft & Praxis; 1999.Google Scholar
  126. Scharfetter C. Wahn im Spektrum der Selbst- und Weltbilder. Sternenfels: Wissenschaft & Praxis; 2003.Google Scholar
  127. Scharfetter C. Scheitern in der Sicht auf Psychopathologie und Therapie. Sternenfels: Wissenschaft & Praxis; 2012.Google Scholar
  128. Schilder P. Das Körperschema. Berlin: Springer; 1925.Google Scholar
  129. Schmitt A, Malchow B, Keeser D, et al. Neurobiologie der Schizophrenie. Aktuelle Befunde von der Struktur zu den Molekülen. Nervenarzt. 2015;86:324–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Schneider K. Klinische Psychopathologie. 6th ed. Stuttgart: Thieme; 1962.Google Scholar
  131. Schwarz F. Gruppenprozess und Gruppenpsychotherapie. In: Schwarz F, Maier C, editors. Psychotherapie der Psychosen. Stuttgart: Thieme; 2001. p. 102–9.Google Scholar
  132. Schwarz F, Matussek P. Die Beurteilung der Psychosen-Psychotherapie aus der Sicht des Patienten. In: Matussek P, editor. Beiträge zur Psychodynamik endogener Psychosen. Heidelberg: Springer; 1990. p. 190–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Solms M, Turnbull O. The brain and the inner world. An introduction to the neuroscience of subjective experience. London: Karnac Books Ltd; 2002.Google Scholar
  134. Stemich-Huber M. Heraklit. Der Werdegang des Weisen. Amsterdam: Grüner; 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Stierlin H. Family dynamics and separation patterns of potential schizophrenia. In: Rubinstein D, Alanen YO, editors. Psychotherapy of schizophrenia. Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica; 1972.Google Scholar
  136. Stransky. Schizophrenie und intrapsychische Ataxie. Jb Psychnat. 1914;36:485.Google Scholar
  137. Tienari P. Interaction between genetic vulnerability and family environment. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1991;84:460–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Tienari P, Wynne LC, Morning J, et al. The Finnish adoptive family study of schizophrenia. Implications for family research. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 1994;23:20–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Tsuang MT, Simpson JC, Fleming JA. Schizoaffektive Erkrankungen. In: Helmchen H, Henn F, Lauter H, Sartorius N, editors. Psychiatrie der Gegenwart, Schizophrene und affektive Störungen, vol. 5. 4th ed. Berlin: Springer; 2000.Google Scholar
  140. Vanhaudenhuyse A, Demertzi A, Schabus M, et al. Two distinct neuronal networks mediate the awareness of environment and of self. J Cogn Neurosci. 2011;23:570–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Venables PH. Input dysfunction in schizophrenia. In: Maher BA, editor. Contributions to the psychopathology of schizophrenia. New York: Academic press; 1977. p. 1–56.Google Scholar
  142. Volkan VD. Identification with the therapist’s function and ego-building in the treatment of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 1994;23:77–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wellek A. Das Problem des seelischen Seins. Meisenheim: West-Kultur; 1953.Google Scholar
  144. Whitfield-Gabrieli S, et al. Hyperactivity and hyperconnectivity of the default network in schizophrenia and in first-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(4):1279–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wiebking C, Duncan NW, Tiret B, et al. GABA in the insula–a predictor of the neural response to interoceptive awareness. NeuroImage. 2014a;86:10–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wiebking C, Duncan NW, Qin P, et al. External awareness and GABA—a multimodal imaging study combining fMRI and [18F]- flumazenil-PET. Hum Brain Mapp. 2014b;35:173–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wurmser L. Pathologische Eifersucht. Dilemma von Liebe und Macht. Forum Psychoanal. 2006;22:3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Ziehen T. Psychiatrie. 2nd ed. Leipzig: Hirzel; 1902.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, PsychosomaticsGeneral Hospital of Frankfurt am Main, Teaching Hospital University FrankfurtFrankfurtGermany
  2. 2.Mind, Brain Imaging, and NeuroethicsInstitute of Mental Health Research, University of OttawaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations