GH/IGF-I and Bone

  • Stefano Frara
  • Filippo Maffezzoni
  • Mauro Doga
  • Anna Maria Formenti
  • Gherardo Mazziotti
  • Andrea Giustina


Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are relevant regulators of bone homeostasis throughout human life, acting on both the trabecular and cortical bone [1]. The anabolic effects of these hormones are important to reach an adequate bone mass during puberty and early adulthood—a critical determinant for the future risk of osteoporosis—and for the maintenance of skeletal health during adult life [2–4]. The precise time of the attainment of peak bone mass is not clear-cut, but it is skeletal-site dependent, and the gonadal status plays a noteworthy role in regulating bone accretion [5].


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Frara
    • 1
  • Filippo Maffezzoni
    • 2
  • Mauro Doga
    • 1
  • Anna Maria Formenti
    • 2
  • Gherardo Mazziotti
    • 3
  • Andrea Giustina
    • 1
  1. 1.Chair of EndocrinologyUniversità Vita-Salute San RaffaeleMilanItaly
  2. 2.ASST Spedali CiviliBresciaItaly
  3. 3.Endocrinology UnitASST Carlo PomaMantuaItaly

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