Ultrasound Imaging of Male Breast

  • Alexander N. Sencha
  • Yury Patrunov


The principles of diagnostics and the approaches to breast pathology treatment in men are based on knowledge obtained in the process of diagnosis and treatment of women with similar breast pathology. High efficacy of ultrasound in diagnosis of breast carcinoma in men is the result of high sensitivity (86.9%) and specificity (85.3%). It allows assessing the areas, which are inaccessible to mammography, such as retromammary space, regions of lymph drainage, and the relation of a tumor to the skin and nipple. In the first visit, the correct diagnosis of cancer is established in 20–52% of male patients. The most difficult is the diagnostics of breast cancer comorbid to gynecomastia, which is observed in 12–40% of patients. The image of normal male breast is rather constant and does not depend on age and cyclic physiological features. Gynecomastia is the most common pathologic condition, which accounts for 74% of all processes developing in male breast. A typical feature of gynecomastia is its central location under the nipple. Physiological gynecomastia exhibits three age peaks: in newborn, in puberty, and in senile period. Gynecomastia may periodically accompany diabetes and other diseases. Palpable benign breast masses in men may be represented with tumors (lipoma, fibroadenoma, atheroma, schwannoma, angiolipoma, intraductal papilloma, cyst) or inflammatory lesions (mastitis, subareolar sepsis, abscess, posttraumatic hematoma, adipose necrosis, tuberculosis, syphilis, intramammary lymph nodes, etc.). Breast cancer in men is a rare disease, discussed in the chapter in detail.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander N. Sencha
    • 1
  • Yury Patrunov
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Visual DiagnosticsNational Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology named after Academician V.I. Kulakov of Ministry of Healthcare of Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics of Radiology CenterYaroslavl Railway ClinicYaroslavlRussia

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