Multiparametric Ultrasound in Benign Breast Diseases (Inflammatory, Diffuse Degenerative)

  • Alexander N. Sencha
  • Ekaterina Sencha


The incidence of breast diseases in fertile women is 10–65%. All breast changes can be divided into two basic groups: tumoral and non-tumoral processes. Diffuse mastopathy is the most widespread disease that accounts for 30–60% of the total number of breast diseases. Fibroadenomas, cysts, intraductal papillomas, and nodular mastopathy are less frequent (1–5%). Mastitis is an inflammatory nonspecific processes in the breast. It is divided into lactational (up to 90%) and non-lactational types. Ultrasonography is valuable in breast trauma with hematomas. Fibrocystic breast disease is characterized with abnormal ratio of epithelial and connective tissue components, wide range of proliferative and regressive breast changes. Nodular type of fibrocystic breast disease is a pathological condition with one or several dense foci within the breast. US permits precise differentiation of cysts in 100% of cases. Intraductal papilloma is a benign, mostly solitary fibroepithelial tumor located within a lactiferous duct (cystadenopapilloma) or in a cyst, often in the subareolar region. Galactocele is a retention breast cyst, single- or multi-chambered, formed during pregnancy and/or lactation and filled with milk. Ultrasound findings in duct ectasia and sclerosing adenosis are usually nonspecific and depend on the stage. Focal fibrosis, radial scar, and gigantomastia are also discussed.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander N. Sencha
    • 1
  • Ekaterina Sencha
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Visual DiagnosticsNational Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology named after Academician V.I. Kulakov of Ministry of Healthcare of Russian FederationMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Department of Ultrasound DiagnosticsFederal State Budget Hospital “9 Treatment and Diagnostic Center” of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian FederationMoscowRussia

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