Smoking and Drugs
Cigarette smoking, both active and passive, has vastly contrasting effects on the development and progression of both Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Quitting smoking also affects both forms of IBD differently. As smoking is a modifiable lifestyle factor, knowledge of its effects in IBD is therefore very important for those who care for people with IBD.
The use of recreational or non-prescribed drugs in IBD has not been widely investigated. There is some conflicting evidence as to the benefit of cannabis. Issues of legality leave this a poorly reported area.
KeywordsSmoking Smoking cessation Cannabis
- Ahmed W, Katz S (2016) Therapeutic use of cannabis in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol 12(11):668–679Google Scholar
- Bredin F, Goodwin T, Parkes M (2011) A Crohn’s smoking cessation programme—initial results. In: ECCO congress nurses poster N006. https://www.ecco-ibd.eu/index.php/publications/congress-abstract-s/abstracts-2011/item/410.html. Accessed 14 Apr 2017
- Hartmann-Boyce J, McRobbie H, Bullen C, Begh R, Stead LF, Hajek P (2016) Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD010216. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD010216.pub3/epdf/standard. Accessed 15 Mar 2017
- McGrath J, McDonald JW, Macdonald JK (2004) Transdermal nicotine for induction of remission in ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD004722. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD004722.pub2/epdf/standard. Accessed 15 Mar 2017
- Severs M, Mangen M-JM, van der Valk ME, Fidder HH, Dijkstra G, van der Have M et al (2017) Smoking is associated with higher disease-related costs and lower health-related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohns Colitis 3:342–352Google Scholar
- Stead LF, Koilpillai P, Fanshawe TR, Lancaster T (2016) Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD008286Google Scholar