Mechanisms of Disease, Etiology and Clinical Manifestations

  • Michael BöhmigEmail author


Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are inflammatory diseases without a single cause. A genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors contribute to developement of the disease.

IBD are caused by an inadequate response of the immune system to the normal, nonpathogenic intestinal bacteria resulting in intestinal damage. The gut microbiome of patients shows alterations. The intestinal barrier is impaired.

Environmental factors seem to play a variable role. Smoking has negative impact on Crohn’s disease.

UC is limited to the colon. CD may involve any part of the intestinal tract and is characterized by transmural inflammation, formation of stenoses, and fistulae.

While the bowel is the main place of manifestation, various other parts of the body may also be affected (extraintestinal manifestations, EIM).


Genetic susceptibility Environmental factors Disruption of intestinal barrier Dysregulation of immune system Dysbiosis of microbiome Extraintestinal manifestations Fistula Stenoses 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medizinische Klinik (Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie, Onkologie, Infektiologie)Agaplesion Markus KrankenhausFrankfurt am MainGermany

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