Extra-intestinal Manifestations

  • N. Chapelier
  • I. Dury
  • E. LouisEmail author


Extra-intestinal manifestations (EIM) affect up to 50% of the patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The most classical EIM are spondyloarthritis, skin lesions like erythema nodosum and pyoderma gangrenosum, eye inflammation with episcleritis, scleritis and uveitis, and also primary sclerosing cholangitis. These manifestations will classically present as axial or peripheral arthralgias or arthritis, inflammatory lesions of the skin, a red inflammatory eye or abnormal liver function tests. EIMs may evolve in parallel or independently from the gastrointestinal inflammation. Some of them may require specific management and treatment. More seldom manifestation may also affect most organs of the body and can be the consequence of chronic systemic inflammation or due to shared genetic or environmental predisposing factors.


Inflammatory bowel disease Crohn Ulcerative colitis Extra-intestinal manifestations Spondyloarthritis Pyoderma gangrenosum Erythema nodosum Episcleritis Uveitis Primary sclerosing cholangitis 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Gastroenterology DepartmentLiège University Hospital CHULiègeBelgium

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