Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disease, typically characterized by transmural inflammation of the intestine and could affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from mouth to perianal area. In terms of distribution of the disease 25% of the patients have colitis only, 25% ileitis only, and 50% ileocolitis. Approximately 70% of patients with CD require surgical intervention within 10 years of their initial diagnosis, with surgical recurrence in 25% of the patients by 5 years and 35% of the patients by 10 years after initial surgery. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with mucosal inflammation that involves only the colon and the rectum, characterized by a proximal extension from rectum to cecum, without small bowel involvement. Surgery is still required in 15–35% of patients affected by UC, also in emergency setting. In this chapter we have analyzed clinical presentations of both diseases with surgical indications, type of surgery, and management of complications. In conclusion, we underline the importance of the role of IBD nurse in the management of all the complex situations that IBD patients live, solving problems and improving quality of life.
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