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Microbiota, Prebiotics, Antibiotics and Fecal Microbiota Transfer

  • Janett Nörenberg
  • Stefanie Vogler
  • Andreas StallmachEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Microbiota is the collectivity of microorganisms settling in the gut of humans and animals. The symbiotic interactions between microbiota and his hosts are of essential physiological and pathophysiological importance. Compositional and metabolic changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota (“dysbiosis”) are associated with the development and maintenance of several inflammatory disorders including chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

IBD-associated dysbiosis can be treated by the administration of antibiotics and of prebiotics/probiotics and by fecal microbiota transfer (FMT). It was found that treatment with antibiotics can harm beneficial microorganisms leading to a changed composition of microbiota and therefore is no longer the first choice. Prebiotics are food ingredients that induce growth or activity of beneficial microorganisms. Probiotics include nonpathogenic living microorganisms that overpopulate the gut. They have positive impacts on the balance of microbes and improve the absorption of micronutrients. Therefore they may have positive impacts on the course of IBD.

Recently, the effectiveness and safety of a novel therapeutic application such as FMT have been demonstrated. It is about a transplantation of fecal microorganisms from a healthy donor in the form of stool suspensions applicated by endoscopy or gastronasal tubes into the patient’s small or large intestine. Although further research is still needed to understand the relationship between dysbiosis of gut microbiota and extra- and intraintestinal inflammation, FMT is a promising approach to treat IBD.

Keywords

Crohn’s disease Ulcerative colitis Fecal microbiota transfer Prebiotics Probiotics Microbiome 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janett Nörenberg
    • 1
  • Stefanie Vogler
    • 1
  • Andreas Stallmach
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine IV (Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Infectious Diseases)Jena University Hospital, University of JenaJenaGermany

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