Climate-Smart Agricultural Practices (CSA) Adoption by Crop Farmers in Semi-arid Regions of West and East Africa: Evidence from Nigeria and Ethiopia

  • Anthony O. OnojaEmail author
  • Amanuel Z. Abraha
  • Atkilt Girma
  • Anthonia I. Achike
Part of the Climate Change Management book series (CCM)


The study was designed to scientifically identify two analogous African sites in semi-arid regions experiencing climate change so as to share their common experiences and then document CSA practices adopted in these regions. It identified analogous sites in Nigeria and Ethiopia for the purpose of studying their climate change adaptation experiences; assessed the socio-economic attributes of crop farmers in the semi-arid regions of these countries under stress and risk of climate change; ascertained the perception of crop farmers on climate change risks in the areas and then described the CSAs adopted in the two analogous sites. Identification of sites were done using GIS tool called CCAFs. Then 120 crop farmers each were randomly selected from the two countries (240 farmers) in a stratified manner. Primary data were collected with the aid of Focus Group Discussion method, a set of structured questionnaire and interview schedule after validating the questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ranking techniques; analysis of variance and t test. It was found that the socioeconomic attributes of farmers in Ethiopia and Nigerian farms varied especially with respect to food assess, types of crops cultivated, household size, education and extension contacts even though major crops in the regions were similar (sorghum, maize, millet and sesame). The two countries had similarities in the adoption of CSAs with the most common CSAs being crop rotation, agro-forestry, adoption of water management techniques, terracing/bunding and contour cropping. In Nigerian farms, while changing of planting dates (76%), diversification of crops (71%) and planting of high resistant varieties (82%) were common CSAs adopted by the farmers, Ethiopian farmers did not adopt these on a high scale. There was no difference in rate of adoption of CSAs in the two countries. It was recommended that farmers should be assisted to build capacities in applying more reliable CSAs such as use of drought tolerant varieties of seeds, improved water management techniques, and to have better access to early warning information on climate; irrigation facilities and finance.


Agroforestry Climate smart agriculture Climate change Farming systems Multiple cropping 



The researchers are very grateful to TRECC Africa (An Intra ACP Training) programme based in Stellenbosch University, for the fund and opportunity provided to conduct this study via its Ph.D. research exchange scholarship programme on Transdisciplinary Knowledge in climate change studies for the 2014/2015 batch awarded to the Principal Investigator, Anthony Ojonimi Onoja as a Ph.D. researcher at the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. We are also grateful to the university of the Principal Investigator, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, for releasing him to do the research and training. Thanks too, the Institute of Climate and Society, Mekelle University for providing some logistic support for the success of this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony O. Onoja
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amanuel Z. Abraha
    • 2
    • 4
  • Atkilt Girma
    • 2
    • 4
  • Anthonia I. Achike
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Economics and ExtensionUniversity of Port HarcourtPort HarcourtNigeria
  2. 2.Institute of Climate and SocietyMekelle UniversityMekelleEthiopia
  3. 3.Department of Agricultural EconomicsUniversity of NigeriaNsukkaNigeria
  4. 4.Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental ProtectionMekelle UniversityMekelleEthiopia

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