Advertisement

Are We Missing the Big Picture? Unlocking the Social-Ecological Resilience of High Nature Value Farmlands to Future Climate Change

  • A. LombaEmail author
  • A. Buchadas
  • João P. Honrado
  • F. Moreira
Chapter
Part of the Climate Change Management book series (CCM)

Abstract

Agriculture is a dominant form of management and a major driver of global change in the Anthropocene. Whilst farmland intensification and expansion came at high costs for the global natural capital, the role of low intensity, traditionally managed High Nature Value farmlands (HNVf) for achieving food security while contributing to the conservation of biodiversity and the delivery of ecosystem services has been acknowledged. Yet, most research on HNVf has focused the impacts of land-use change, potentially overlooking the challenges that climate change may pose to their future persistence. In this chapter, we present an overview of the impacts of climate change on HNVf, based on the analysis of current scientific evidence. Overall, while an increasing number of studies was observed, there is a lack of data-driven assessments at the global scale, reflecting an inability to forecast the impacts of climate change on low-intensity farming systems at this scale. High variation was observed regarding the impacts addressed and the topics tackled in space and time in the research records scrutinized. A paradigm shift towards integrated approaches considering both climate and land-use change impacts in the social-ecological systems underlying low-intensity, traditionally managed HNVf is discussed and future perspectives and research needs are outlined.

Keywords

Agro-biodiversity Climate change Ecosystem Services (ES) Environmental Sustainability High Nature Value farmlands (HNVf) Knowledge gaps Social-ecological systems (SES) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

AL and FM were supported by the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (FCT) through Post-Doctoral Grant SFRH/BPD/80747/2011 and contract IF/01053/2015, respectively. This research is a result of project FARSYD-2011–2016—POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016664, supported by Norte Portugal Regional Operational Programme (NORTE 2020), under the PORTUGAL 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), and by national funds through FCT—Portuguese Science Foundation (PTDC/AAG-EC/5007/2014).

References

  1. Altieri MA (2004) Linking ecologists and traditional farmers in the search for sustainable agriculture. Front Ecol Environ 2(1):35–42.  https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002%5b0035:leatfi%5d2.0.co;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altieri MA, Koohafkan P (2008) Enduring farms: climate change, smallholders and traditional farming communities, Environment and Development Series 6. Third World Network, PenangGoogle Scholar
  3. Altieri MA, Nicholls CI, Henao A, Lana MA (2015) Agroecology and the design of climate change-resilient farming systems. Agron Sustain Dev 35(3):869–890.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-015-0285-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersen E, Baldock D, Bennett H, Beaufoy G, Bignal E, Bouwer F, Elbersen B, Eiden G, Giodeschalk F, Jones G, McCracken D, Nieuwenhuizen W, Eupen Mv, Hennekes S, Zervas G (2004) Developing a high nature value farming area indicator. Internal Report. European Environment Agency, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  5. Asseng S, Pannell DJ (2013) Adapting dryland agriculture to climate change: farming implications and research and development needs in Western Australia. Climatic Change 118(2):167–181.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-012-0623-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barbarika A (2011) Conservation reserve program annual summary and enrollment statistics. United States Department of Agriculture, F.S.A., Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Batáry P, Dicks LV, Kleijn D, Sutherland WJ (2015) The role of agri-environment schemes in conservation and environmental management. Conserv Biol 29:1006–1016.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beaufoy G, Baldock D, Clarke J (1994) The nature of farming: low intensity farming systems in Nine European Countries. IEEP, London. ISBN 1-873906-01-3Google Scholar
  9. Benayas JMR, Martins A, Nicolau JM, Schulz JJ (2007) Abandonment of agricultural land: an overview of drivers and consequences. CAB Rev: Perspect Agric Vet Sci Nutr Nat Resour 2(057).  https://doi.org/10.1079/pavsnnr20072057
  10. Benayas JMR, Bullock JM, Newton AC (2008) Creating woodland islets to reconcile ecological restoration, conservation, and agricultural land use. Front Ecol Environ 6(6):329–336.  https://doi.org/10.1890/070057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bennett EM, Solan M, Biggs R., McPhearson T, Norström AV, Olsson P, Pereira L, Peterson GD, Raudsepp-Hearne C, Biermann F, Carpenter SR, Ellis EC, Hichert T, Galaz V, Lahsen M, Milkoreit M, Martin López B, Nicholas KA, Preiser R, Vince G, Vervoort JM, Xu J (2016) Bright spots: seeds of a good Anthropocene. Front Ecol Environ 14:441–448.  https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.1309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernués A, Rodríguez-Ortega T, Ripoll-Bosch R, Alfnes F (2014) Socio-cultural and economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by Mediterranean Mountain Agroecosystems. PLoS ONE 9(7):e102479.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bernués A, Tello-García E, Rodríguez-Ortega T, Ripoll-Bosch R, Casasús I (2016) Agricultural practices, ecosystem services and sustainability in high nature value farmland: unraveling the perceptions of farmers and nonfarmers. Land Use Policy 59:130–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.08.033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bignal EM, McCracken DI (2000) The nature conservation value of European traditional farming systems. Environ Rev 8(3):149–171.  https://doi.org/10.1139/a00-009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bommarco R, Kleijn D, Potts SG (2013) Ecological intensification: harnessing ecosystem services for food security. Trends Ecol Evol 28(4):230–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2012.10.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cumming GS, Buerkert A, Hoffmann EM, Schlecht E, von Cramon-Taubadel S, Tscharntke T (2014) Implications of agricultural transitions and urbanization for ecosystem services. Nature 515(7525):50–57.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dale VH, Polasky S (2007) Measures of the effects of agricultural practices on ecosystem services. Ecol Econ 64(2):286–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.05.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dobbs TL, Pretty JN (2004) Agri-environmental stewardship schemes and “multifunctionality”. Rev Agric Econ 26(2):220–237.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9353.2004.00172.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dorresteijn I, Loos J, Hanspach J, Fischer J (2015) Socioecological drivers facilitating biodiversity conservation in traditional farming landscapes. Ecosyst Health Sustain 1(9):1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1890/ehs15-0021.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Downing TE (1993) The effects of climate change on agriculture and food security. Renew Energy 3(4–5):491–497.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-1481(93)90115-wCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Falagas ME, Pitsouni EI, Malietzis GA, Pappas G (2008) Comparison of PubMed, scopus, Web of science, and Google scholar: strengths and weaknesses. FASEB J 22(2):338–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.07-9492LSFCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. FAO (2014) The state of food and agriculture: innovation in family farming. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  23. Fischer J, Brosi B, Daily GC, Ehrlich PR, Goldman R, Goldstein J, Lindenmayer DB, Manning AD, Mooney HA, Pejchar L, Ranganathan J, Tallis H (2008) Should agricultural policies encourage land sparing or wildlife-friendly farming? Front Ecol Environ 6(7):380–385.  https://doi.org/10.1890/070019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fischer J, Hartel T, Kuemmerle T (2012) Conservation policy in traditional farming landscapes. Conserv Lett 5(3):167–175.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-263x.2012.00227.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fischer J, Abson DJ, Bergsten A, French Collier N, Dorresteijn I, Hanspach J, Hylander K, Schultner J, Senbeta F (2017) Reframing the food–biodiversity challenge. Trends Ecol Evol 32(5):335–345. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2017.02.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Foley JA, Ramankutty N, Brauman KA, Cassidy ES, Gerber JS, Johnston M, Mueller ND, O/’Connell C, Ray DK, West PC, Balzer C, Bennett EM, Carpenter SR, Hill J, Monfreda C, Polasky S, Rockstrom J, Sheehan J, Siebert S, Tilman D, Zaks DPM (2011) Solutions for a cultivated planet. Nature 478(7369):337–342. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v478/n7369/abs/nature10452.html#supplementary-informationCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garibaldi LA, Gemmill-Herren B, D’Annolfo R, Graeub BE, Cunningham SA, Breeze TD (2017) Farming approaches for greater biodiversity, livelihoods, and food security. Trends Ecol Evol 32(1):68–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2016.10.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Godfray HCJ, Beddington JR, Crute IR, Haddad L, Lawrence D, Muir JF, Pretty J, Robinson S, Thomas SM, Toulmin C (2010) Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327(5967):812–818.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1185383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Halada L, Evans D, Romão C, Petersen J-E (2011) Which habitats of European importance depend on agricultural practices? Biodivers Conserv 20(11):2365–2378.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-011-9989-zCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Heller NE, Zavaleta ES (2009) Biodiversity management in the face of climate change: a review of 22 years of recommendations. Biol Conserv 142:14–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2008.10.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Honrado JP, Lomba A, Alves P, Aguiar C, Monteiro-Henriques T, Cerqueira Y, Monteiro P, Barreto Caldas F (2016) Conservation management of EU priority habitats after collapse of traditional pastoralism: navigating socioecological transitions in Mountain Rangeland. Rural Sociol 82:101–128.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ruso.12111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jongman RHG (2013) Biodiversity observation from local to global. Ecol Ind 33(0):1–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.03.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Keenleyside C, Beaufoy G, Tucker G, Jones G (2014) High nature value farming throughout EU-27 and its financial support under the CAP. Report Prepared for DG Environment, Contract No ENV B.1/ETU/2012/0035, Institute for European Environmental Policy, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Lichtenberg E (2014) Conservation, the Farm Bill, and U.S. agri-environmental policy. Choices 29(3):1–6Google Scholar
  35. Lomba A, Guerra C, Alonso J, Honrado JP, Jongman R, McCracken D (2014) Mapping and monitoring High Nature Value farmlands: challenges in European landscapes. J Environ Manage 143(0):140–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.04.029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lowder SK, Skoet J, Raney T (2016) The number, size, and distribution of farms, smallholder farms, and family farms worldwide. World Dev 87:16–29. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.10.041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moreira F, Pinto MJ, Henriques I, Marques T (2005) The importance of low-intensity farming systems for fauna, flora and habitats protected under the european “Birds” and “Habitats” directives: is agriculture essential for preserving biodiversity in the Mediterranean Region? In: Burk AR (ed) Trends in biodiversity research. Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp 117–145Google Scholar
  38. Morton JF (2007) The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104(50):19680–19685.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0701855104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Oppermann R, Beaufoy G, Jones G (eds) (2012). High nature value farming in Europe. 35 European countries: experiences and perspectives. Verlag Regionalkultur, Ubstadt-WeiherGoogle Scholar
  40. O’Rourke E, Charbonneau M, Poinsot Y (2016) High nature value mountain farming systems in Europe: case studies from the Atlantic Pyrenees, France and the Kerry Uplands, Ireland. J Rural Stud 46:47–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.05.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pedrono M, Locatelli B, Ezzine-de-Blas D, Pesche D, Morand S, Binot A (2016) Impact of climate change on ecosystem services. In Torquebiau E (ed) Climate change and agriculture worldwide. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 251–261.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-7462-8_19Google Scholar
  42. Plieninger T, Bieling C (2012) Resilience and the cultural landscape: understanding and managing change in human-shaped environments. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. Plieninger T, Bieling C (2013) Resilience-based perspectives to guiding high-nature-value farmland through socioeconomic change. Ecol Soc 18(4).  https://doi.org/10.5751/es-05877-180420
  44. Plieninger T, Höchtl F, Spek T (2006) Traditional land-use and nature conservation in European rural landscapes. Environ Sci Policy 9(4):317–321.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2006.03.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Plieninger T, Hui C, Gaertner M, Huntsinger L (2014) The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the mediterranean basin: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 9(5):e98355.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pôças I, Gonçalves J, Marcos B, Alonso J, Castro P, Honrado JP (2014) Evaluating the fitness for use of spatial data sets to promote quality in ecological assessment and monitoring. Int J Geogr Inf Sci 28(11):2356–2371.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13658816.2014.924627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Porter JR, Xie L, Challinor AJ, Cochrane K, Howden M, Iqbal MM, Lobell DB, Travasso MI (2014) Chapter 7. Food security and food production systems. Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability, Working Group II Contribution to the IPCC 5th Assessment Report, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  48. Power AG (2010) Ecosystem services and agriculture: tradeoffs and synergies. Philos Trans R Soc B: Biol Sci 365(1554):2959–2971.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Queiroz C, Beilin R, Folke C, Lindborg R (2014) Farmland abandonment: threat or opportunity for biodiversity conservation? A global review. Front Ecol Environ 12(5):288–296.  https://doi.org/10.1890/120348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ribeiro PF, Santos JL, Bugalho MN, Santana J, Reino L, Beja P, Moreira F (2014) Modelling farming system dynamics in high nature value farmland under policy change. Agric Ecosyst Environ 183:138–144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.11.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rockström J, Williams J, Daily G, Noble A, Matthews N, Gordon L, Wetterstrand H, DeClerck F, Shah M, Steduto P, de Fraiture C, Hatibu N, Unver O, Bird J, Sibanda L, Smith J (2017) Sustainable intensification of agriculture for human prosperity and global sustainability. Ambio 46(1):4–17.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-016-0793-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rounsevell MDA, Berry PM, Harrison PA (2006) Future environmental change impacts on rural land use and biodiversity: a synthesis of the ACCELERATES project. Environ Sci Policy 9(2):93–100. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2005.11.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Salick J, Ross N (2009) Traditional peoples and climate change. Glob Environ Change 19(2):137–139.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.01.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Strohbach MW, Kohler ML, Dauber J, Klimek S (2015) High nature value farming: from indication to conservation. Ecol Indic 57(0):557–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.05.021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Swinton SM, Lupi F, Robertson GP, Hamilton SK (2007) Ecosystem services and agriculture: cultivating agricultural ecosystems for diverse benefits. Ecol Econ 64(2):245–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.09.020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Terres J-M, Scacchiafichi LN, Wania A, Ambar M, Anguiano E, Buckwell A, Coppola A, Gocht A, Källström HN, Pointereau P, Strijker D, Visek L, Vranken L, Zobena A (2015) Farmland abandonment in Europe: identification of drivers and indicators, and development of a composite indicator of risk. Land Use Policy 49:20–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.06.009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tscharntke T, Clough Y, Wanger TC, Jackson L, Motzke I, Perfecto I, Vandermeer J, Whitbread A (2012) Global food security, biodiversity conservation and the future of agricultural intensification. Biol Conserv 151(1):53–59. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.01.068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Venter O, Sanderson EW, Magrach A, Allan JR, Beher J, Jones KR, Possingham HP, Laurance WF, Wood P, Fekete BM, Levy MA, Watson JEM (2016) Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation. Nat Commun 7.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12558
  59. Vignola R, Harvey CA, Bautista-Solis P, Avelino J, Rapidel B, Donatti C, Martinez R (2015) Ecosystem-based adaptation for smallholder farmers: definitions, opportunities and constraints. Agric Ecosyst Environ 211:126–132.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2015.05.013CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Lomba
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Buchadas
    • 1
  • João P. Honrado
    • 1
  • F. Moreira
    • 1
  1. 1.CIBIO/InBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos da Universidade do PortoVairãoPortugal

Personalised recommendations