Comparative Study on Agriculture and Forestry Climate Change Adaptation Projects in Mongolia, the Philippines, and Timor Leste

  • Cynthia Juwita IsmailEmail author
  • Takeshi Takama
  • Ibnu Budiman
  • Michele Knight
Part of the Climate Change Management book series (CCM)


The impacts of climate change, such as increasing temperature, erratic rainfall pattern, sea level rise, etc., are being increasingly reported. These impacts are destructive for human activities and thus the development and improvement of mitigation and adaptation strategies is a priority globally. In the least developed and developing countries, adequate adaptive capacities are required so to boost the resilience of communities towards the projected climate change projected. Moreover, activities of climate change adaptation not only provide solutions and strategies to deal with climate change, but also encourage sustainable development. This comparative study evaluates projects in three countries: Mongolia, The Philippines, and Timor Leste, by mapping and contrasting the factors that contribute to adaptive capacity and support sustainable development. A heuristic matrix was used to articulate the capacities that influenced the desired outcomes of each project. Some key components of adaptive capacity were identified in each context. The interaction of those components improved the generic and specific capacity at individual and system level then ultimately improved resilience towards climate change.


Adaptation Climate change Agriculture Forestry Water management Sustainable development 



We would like also to thank our colleague, Mariana Silaen who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted the research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cynthia Juwita Ismail
    • 1
    Email author
  • Takeshi Takama
    • 1
  • Ibnu Budiman
    • 1
  • Michele Knight
    • 1
  1. 1.Sustainability and Resilience Co (

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