Advertisement

Anthropic Action Effects Caused by Soybean Farmers in a Watershed of Tocantins—Brazil and Its Connections with Climate Change

  • José Jamil Fernandes MartinsEmail author
  • Amadeu M. V. M. Soares
  • Ulisses M. Azeiteiro
  • Mauro Lucio Torres Correia
Chapter
Part of the Climate Change Management book series (CCM)

Abstract

This chapter presents the design and development of an Environmental Sustainability Index for the Evaluation of Environmental Agricultural Sustainability (impacts from anthropic action) applied to the Brazilian agricultural production Soybean monoculture area. The Agricultural Sustainability Index (ISAGRI) aims to express the degree of environmental sustainability of any agricultural production system, regardless of the system being of organic or conventional production. As such, it was designed to contain a minimum set of representative indicators of the quality of soil and water, of degradation and of measures compatible with sustainability. These indicators are useful both to compare the degree of sustainability of production systems, watersheds and regions, and to evaluate in any of these dimensions, its evolution over time. The ISAGRI employs mainly quantitative data, being a result of the aggregation of sub-indexes and indicators and it consists of a numerical value. This is because a high degree of comparability, as it proposes, is necessarily linked to the use of numerical data. The indicators part of these indexes were grouped into three dimensions named: Pressure—characterization of the environmental degradation caused by its use; State—identification of environmental quality and of natural resources and Response—measures taken for preservation of environmental quality. For a better comprehension of the circumstances under review, four alternative scenarios were proposed, preceded by some hypotheses, where the parameters that characterize each of them are: changing the type of planting, land use and used area or a combination of the above (planting and area). From these numbers, which are significant, it remains very clear the need for strict compliance with the environmental law that deals with forest reserve, including the restrictions to soil slopes, as well as the use of no-tillage.

Keywords

Agro-ecosystems Cerrado Soybean Brazil Soil health Agricultural sustainability index 

Supplementary material

459388_1_En_15_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 21 kb)

References

  1. Allen DE, Singh BP, Dalal RC (2011) Soil health indicators under climate change: a review of current knowledge. In: Singh BP et al (ed) soil health and climate change, soil biology 29.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-20256-8_2Google Scholar
  2. Bernardi ACC et al (2003) Sistema PAQLF 1.0 para a administração do programa de análise de qualidade de laboratórios de fertilidade da Embrapa solos. EMBRAPA, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  3. CATI (2000) Programa estadual de microbacias hidrográficas. São PauloGoogle Scholar
  4. Contini E, Gasques JG, Alves E, Bastos ET (2010) Dinamismo da agricultura brasileira. In: Revista de Política Agrícola, publicação da Secretaria de Política Agrícola do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Ano XIX. Edição Especial de Aniversário do MAPA – 150 anos. Brasília, July 2010. p. 42/64. Available at: https://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/80771/1/Dinamismo-da-agricultura-brasileira.pdf. Accessed on 25 Sept 2016
  5. COOPERATIVA AGROPECUÁRIA DE PEDRO AFONSO-COAPA (2009) Pedro Afonso. TocantinsGoogle Scholar
  6. Dos Anjos LHC, Van Raij B (2004) Indicadores de processos de degradação de solos. In: Romeiro AR (ed) Avaliação e contabilização de impactos ambientais, Romeiro AR (Org). Unicamp, Campinas; Imprensa Oficial do Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo, pp 87–111Google Scholar
  7. EMBRAPA—Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária. Soja—Portal Embrapa, safra 2015/2016. Available at: https://www.embrapa.br/soja/cultivos/soja1. Accessed on 27 Sept 2016
  8. Fragoso CR, Marques DMLM, Ferreira TF, Janse JH, van Nes EH (2011) Potential effects of climate change and eutrophication on a large subtropical shallow lake. Environ Model Softw 26:1337–1348.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2011.05.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. IBGE (2009) Levantamento Sistemático da Produção Agrícola. Estado do Tocantins: quadro comparativo da produção de grãos. Available at: www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/indicadores/agropecuaria/lspa/. Accessed on 16 Mar 2016
  10. Karlen DL, Mausbach MJ, Doran JW, Cline RG, Harris RF, Schuman GE (1997) Soil quality: a concept, soil quality: a concept, definition, and framework for evaluation. Soil Sci Soc Am J 61:4–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Larson WE, Pierce FJ (1994) The dynamics of soil quality as a measure of sustainable management. In: Doran JW et al (ed) Defining soil quality for a sustainable environment. Madison Soil Science Society of America Special Publication, pp 37–51Google Scholar
  12. Lira WS, Candido GA (2008) Análise dos modelos de indicadores no contexto do desenvolvimento sustentável. Perspectivas Contemporâneas, Campo Mourão 3(1):31–45Google Scholar
  13. Martins JJF (2014) Padrões Econômico-Ambientais da Agropecuária no Estado do Tocantins: Estudo Comparativo de Microbacias correspondentes a três Sistemas Agrários relevantes. NAEA, Belém, p 274. ISBN 978-85-7143-121-8Google Scholar
  14. Menten JOM (2009) Importância de novos defensivos agrícolas para a sustentabilidade da produção vegetal 31. Semana da Citricultura, ANDEF, São PauloGoogle Scholar
  15. Moreira FMS, Siqueira JO (2002) Microbiologia e Bioquímica do Solo. Editora UFLA, Lavras, pp 85, 97–98. Available at: http://www.prpg.ufla.br/solos/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/MoreiraSiqueira2006.pdf. Accessed on 30 Sept 2016
  16. Moss B, Kosten S, Meerhoff M, Battarbee RW, Jeppesen E, Mazzeo N, Havens K, Lacerot G, Liu Z, De Meester L, Paerl H, Scheffer M (2011) Allied attack: climate change and eutrophication. Inland Waters 1:101–105.  https://doi.org/10.5268/IW-1.2.359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mullan D (2013) Soil erosion under the impacts of future climate change: Assessing the statistical significance of future changes and the potential on-site and off-site problems. Catena 109:234–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.03.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. OECD (1993) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: core set of indicators for environmental performance reviews; a synthesis report by the group on the state of the environment. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  19. OECD (1997) Environmental indicators for agriculture. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Issue and policies. The Helsinki Seminar, OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  20. OECD (1998) Agriculture and the environment: issues and policies. The Helsinki Seminar, OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  21. Pimentel D, Harvey C, Resosudarmo P, Sinclair K, Kurz D, McNair M, Crist S, Shpritz L, Fitton L, Saffouri R, Blair R (1995) Environmental and economic costs of soil erosion and conservation benefits. Science 267:1117–1123.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.267.5201.1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Previero CA (2006) Caracterização e análise da Oepa UNITINS Agro/To. Relatório Final. Centro de Gestão e Estudos Estratégicos. Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação. Palmas – To. ago. 2006. p 6. Available at: www.cgee.org.br/atividades/redirect/3403. Accessed on 25 Sept 2016
  23. Sabiha N-E, Salim R, Rahman S, Rola-Rubzen MF (2016) Measuring environmental sustainability in agriculture: a composite environmental impact index approach. J Environ Manage 166:84–93.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.10.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Salvador Sanchis MP, Torro D, Borselli L, Poesen J (2008) Climate effects on soil erodibility. Earth Surf Proc Land 33:1082–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sampaio G, Nobre C, Costa MH, Satyamurty P, Soares-Filho BT, Cardoso M (2007) Regional climate change over eastern Amazonia caused by pasture and soybean cropland expansion. Geophys Res Lett 34:L17709.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL030612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. SEAGRO (2016) Secretaria do Desenvolvimento da Agricultura e Pecuária. Governo do Tocantins. Available at: http://seagro.to.gov.br/noticia/2016/3/15/tocantins-deve-colher-mais-de-dois-milhoes-de-toneladas-de-soja-safra-201516. Accessed on 28 Sept 2016
  27. Seron E (2010) Inovação e contribuições para o agronegócio brasileiro. VIII Reunião da Câmara Setorial de Oleaginosas e biodiesel—MAPA. Associação Nacional de Defesa Vegetal. ANDEF (2004). Brasília—DF.11/07/2010. Available at https://pt.slideshare.net/LeomachadoFAEG/andef. Accessed on 8 Oct 2016
  28. Silva LF (2007) A construção de um índice de sustentabilidade ambiental agrícola (ISA): uma proposta metodológica. Campinas, SP. 2007. 232 f. Tese (Doutorado em Economia Aplicada)—Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CampinasGoogle Scholar
  29. Spadotto CA, Gomes MAF (2004) Impactos ambientais de agrotóxicos: monitoramento e avaliação In: Romeiro AR (Org). Avaliação e contabilização de impactos ambientais. Editora da UNICAMP, Campinas, SP. Imprensa Oficial do Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, pp 112–122Google Scholar
  30. Tomasoni MA (2006) Contribuição ao estudo de indicadores ambientais. Geonordeste 15(2):90–118Google Scholar
  31. Xia R, Zhang Y, Critto A, Wu J, Fan J, Zheng Z, Zhang Y (2016) The potential impacts of climate change factors on freshwater eutrophication: implications for research and countermeasures of water management in China. Sustainability 8:229.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su8030229CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Jamil Fernandes Martins
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amadeu M. V. M. Soares
    • 1
  • Ulisses M. Azeiteiro
    • 1
  • Mauro Lucio Torres Correia
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biology & CESAMAveiro UniversityAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.IFTO Tocantins Federal Institute of EducationPalmasBrazil

Personalised recommendations