Alien Plant Species: Environmental Risks in Agricultural and Agro-Forest Landscapes Under Climate Change

  • Joana R. VicenteEmail author
  • Ana Sofia Vaz
  • Ana Isabel Queiroz
  • Ana R. Buchadas
  • Antoine Guisan
  • Christoph Kueffer
  • Elizabete Marchante
  • Hélia Marchante
  • João A. Cabral
  • Maike Nesper
  • Olivier Broennimann
  • Oscar Godoy
  • Paulo Alves
  • Pilar Castro-Díez
  • Renato Henriques
  • João P. Honrado
Part of the Climate Change Management book series (CCM)


Alien plant species have been essential for farming and agro-forestry systems and for their supply of food, fiber, tannins, resins or wood from antiquity to the present. They also contributed to supporting functions and regulating services (water, soil, biodiversity) and to the design of landscapes with high cultural and scenic value. Some of those species were intentionally introduced, others arrived accidentally, and a small proportion escaped, naturalized and became invasive in natural ecosystems—these are known as invasive alien species (IAS). Here, invasive means that these species have some significant negative impact, either by spreading from human-controlled environments (e.g. fields, gardens) to natural ecosystems, where they can cause problems to native species, or to other production systems or urban areas, impacting on agricultural, forestry activities or human health. Socio-environmental impacts associated with plant invasions have been increasingly recognized worldwide and are expected to increase considerably under changing climate or land use. Early detection tools are key to anticipate IAS and to prevent and control their impacts. In this chapter, we focus on crop and non-crop alien plant species for which there is evidence or prediction of invasive behaviour and impacts. We provide insights on their history, patterns, risks, early detection, forecasting and management under climate change. Specifically, we start by providing a general overview on the history of alien plant species in agricultural and agroforestry systems worldwide (Sect. 1). Then, we assess patterns, risks and impacts resulting from alien plants originally cultivated and that became invasive outside cultivation areas (Sect. 2). Afterwards, we provide several considerations for managing the spread of invasive plant species in the landscape (Sect. 3). Finally, we discuss challenges of alien plant invasions for agricultural and agroforest systems, in the light of climate change (Sect. 4).


Ecosystem service Impact assessment Introduction history Plant invasions Predictive modelling Remote sensing 



Joana R. Vicente was supported by POPH/FSE and FCT (Post-Doc grant SFRH/BPD/84044/2012). Ana Sofia Vaz was supported by FSE/MEC and FCT (Ph.D. grant PD/BD/52600/2014). Ana Isabel Queiroz supported by FCT—the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology [UID/HIS/04209/2013 and IF/00222/2013/CP1166/CT0001]. This work received financial support from the European Union (FEDER funds POCI-01-0145-FEDER-006821) and National Funds (FCT/MEC, Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia and Ministério da Educação e Ciência) under the Partnership Agreement PT2020 UID/BIA/50027/2013.


  1. Ahmed OS, Shemrock A, Chabot D, Dillon C, Williams G, Wasson R, Franklin SE (2017) Hierarchical land cover and vegetation classification using multispectral data acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle. Int J Remote Sens 38:2037–2052. Scholar
  2. Andrew ME, Ustin SL (2009) Habitat suitability modelling of an invasive plant with advanced remote sensing data. Diversity Distrib 15:627–640. Scholar
  3. Bastos R et al (2012) Testing a novel spatially-explicit dynamic modelling approach in the scope of the laurel forest management for the endangered Azores bullfinch (Pyrrhula murina) conservation. Biol Conserv 147:243–254. Scholar
  4. Baxter PWJ, Possingham HP (2011) Optimizing search strategies for invasive pests: learn before you leap. J Appl Ecol 48:86–95. Scholar
  5. Beaumont LJ, Gallagher RV, Thuiller W, Downey PO, Leishman MR, Hughes L (2009) Different climatic envelopes among invasive populations may lead to underestimations of current and future biological invasions. Diversity Distrib 15:409–420. Scholar
  6. Bellard C, Thuiller W, Leroy B, Genovesi P, Bakkenes M, Courchamp F (2013) Will climate change promote future invasions? Glob Change Biol 19:3740–3748. Scholar
  7. Boreux V, Krishnan S, Cheppudira KG, Ghazoul J (2013) Impact of forest fragments on bee visits and fruit set in rain-fed and irrigated coffee agro-forests. Agric Ecosyst Environ 172:42–48. Scholar
  8. Bradley BA (2014) Remote detection of invasive plants: a review of spectral, textural and phenological approaches. Biol Invasions 16:1411–1425. Scholar
  9. Bradley BA, Wilcove DS, Oppenheimer M (2010) Climate change increases risk of plant invasion in the Eastern United States. Biol Invasions 12:1855–1872. Scholar
  10. Broennimann O, Guisan A (2008) Predicting current and future biological invasions: both native and invaded ranges matter. Biol Lett 4:585–589. Scholar
  11. Broennimann O, Mráz P, Petitpierre B, Guisan A, Müller-Schärer H (2014) Contrasting spatio-temporal climatic niche dynamics during the eastern and western invasions of spotted knapweed in North America. J Biogeogr 41:1126–1136. Scholar
  12. Brundu G, Richardson DM (2016) Planted forests and invasive alien trees in Europe: a code for managing existing and future plantings to mitigate the risk of negative impacts from invasions. In: Daehler CC, van Kleunen M, Pyšek P, Richardson DM (eds) Proceedings of 13th international EMAPi conference, Waikoloa, Hawaii, 2016. NeoBiota, pp 5–47Google Scholar
  13. Buchadas A et al (2017) Dynamic models in research and management of biological invasions. J Environ Manage 196:594–606. Scholar
  14. Carruthers J, Robin L, Hattingh JP, Kull CA, Rangan H, van Wilgen BW (2011) A native at home and abroad: the history, politics, ethics and aesthetics of acacias. Diversity Distrib 17:810–821. Scholar
  15. Chytrý M, Pyšek P, Wild J, Pino J, Maskell LC, Vilà M (2009) European map of alien plant invasions based on the quantitative assessment across habitats. Divers Distrib 15:98–107. Scholar
  16. Colomina I, Molina P (2014) Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: a review. ISPRS J Photogramm Remote Sens 92:79–97. Scholar
  17. Cousens R, Mortimer M (1995) Dynamics of weed populations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  18. Crespo-Pérez V, Rebaudo F, Silvain J-F, Dangles O (2011) Modeling invasive species spread in complex landscapes: the case of potato moth in Ecuador. Landscape Ecol 26:1447–1461. Scholar
  19. Crosby AW (2004) Ecological imperialism, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Cuddington K, Fortin MJ, Gerber LR, Hastings A, Liebhold A, O’Connor M, Ray C (2013) Process-based models are required to manage ecological systems in a changing world. Ecosphere 4:1–12. Scholar
  21. Davies KW, Sheley RL (2007) A conceptual framework for preventing the spatial dispersal of invasive plants. Weed Sci 55:178–184. Scholar
  22. Davis AD, Landis DA (2011) Agriculture. In: Simberloff D, Rejmánek M (eds) Encyclopeia of biological invasions. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, pp 7–10Google Scholar
  23. Dickie I et al (2014) Conflicting values: ecosystem services and invasive tree management. Biol Invasions 16:705–719. Scholar
  24. Doebley J (2006) Unfallen grains: how ancient farmers turned weeds into crops. Science 312:1318. Scholar
  25. Early R, Sax DF (2014) Climatic niche shifts between species’ native and naturalized ranges raise concern for ecological forecasts during invasions and climate change. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 23:1356–1365. Scholar
  26. Elton CS (2000) The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  27. Ferrari JR, Preisser EL, Fitzpatrick MC (2014) Modeling the spread of invasive species using dynamic network models. Biol Invasions 16:949–960. Scholar
  28. Foxcroft LC, McGeoch M (2011) Implementing invasive species management in an adaptive management framework. Koedoe 53.
  29. Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, Wilson JRU (2008) Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger national park South Africa. Environ Manage 41:32–51. Scholar
  30. Gallien L, Douzet R, Pratte S, Zimmermann NE, Thuiller W (2012) Invasive species distribution models—how violating the equilibrium assumption can create new insights. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 21:1126–1136. Scholar
  31. Gallien L, Munkemuller T, Albert CH, Boulangeat I, Thuiller W (2010) Predicting potential distributions of invasive species: where to go from here? Diversity Distrib 16:331–342. Scholar
  32. Garcia CA et al (2010) Biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes: challenges and opportunities of coffee agroforests in the Western Ghats. India Conservation Biology 24:479–488. Scholar
  33. Garcia-Llorente M, Martin-Lopez B, Nunes PA, Gonzalez JA, Alcorlo P, Montes C (2011) Analyzing the social factors that influence willingness to pay for invasive alien species management under two different strategies: eradication and prevention. Environ Manage 48:418–435. Scholar
  34. Gassó N, Thuiller W, Pino J, Vilà M (2012) Potential distribution range of invasive plant species. Spain NeoBiota 12:25–40. Scholar
  35. Gonçalves JA, Henriques R (2015) UAV photogrammetry for topographic monitoring of coastal areas. ISPRS J Photogram Remote Sens 104:101–111. Scholar
  36. Grove RH (1995) Green imperialism. Colonial expansion, tropical islands Edens and the origins of environmentalism, 1600–1860. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  37. Guisan A et al (2013) Predicting species distributions for conservation decisions. Ecol Lett 16:1424–1435. Scholar
  38. Guisan A, Broennimann O, Engler R, Vust M, Yoccoz NG, Lehmann A, Zimmermann NE (2006) Using niche-based models to improve the sampling of rare species. Conserv Biol 20:501–511. Scholar
  39. Guisan A, Petitpierre B, Broennimann O, Daehler C, Kueffer C (2014) Unifying niche shift studies: insights from biological invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 29:260–269. Scholar
  40. Haines-Young R, Potschin M (2013) In: Common international classification of ecosystem services (CICES): consultation on version 4, Aug–Dec 2012. EEA Framework contract No EEA/IEA/09/003Google Scholar
  41. Hannah L, Midgley GF, Millar D (2002) Climate change-integrated conservation strategies. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 11:485–495. Scholar
  42. Hellmann JJ, Byers JE, Bierwagen BG, Dukes JS (2008) Five potential consequences of climate change for invasive species. Conserv Biol 22:534–543. Scholar
  43. Holcombe T, Stohlgren TJ (2009) Detection and early warning of invasive species. In: Clout MN, Williams PA (eds) Invasive species management: a handbook of principles and techniques. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 36–46Google Scholar
  44. Honrado JP, Pereira HM, Guisan A (2016) Fostering integration between biodiversity monitoring and modelling. J Appl Ecol 53:1299–1304. Scholar
  45. Hulme PE (2006) Beyond control: wider implications for the management of biological invasions. J Appl Ecol 43:835–847. Scholar
  46. Jørgensen SE (2008) Overview of the model types available for development of ecological models. Ecol Model 215:3–9. Scholar
  47. Kandziora M, Burkhard B, Müller F (2013) Interactions of ecosystem properties, ecosystem integrity and ecosystem service indicators—a theoretical matrix exercise. Ecol Ind 28:54–78. Scholar
  48. Kleinbauer I, Dullinger S, Peterseil J, Essl F (2010) Climate change might drive the invasive tree Robinia pseudacacia into nature reserves and endangered habitats. Biol Cons 143:382–390. Scholar
  49. Kolar CS, Lodge DM (2001) Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders. Trends Ecol Evol 16:199–204. Scholar
  50. Krishnan S, Chengappa SK, Ghazoul J (2011) Bee diversity and the extent of forests in the context of the wider landscape matrix. ZurichGoogle Scholar
  51. Kriticos DJ, Watt MS, Withers TM, Leriche A, Watson MC (2009) A process-based population dynamics model to explore target and non-target impacts of a biological control agent. Ecol Model 220:2035–2050. Scholar
  52. Krumm F, Vítková L (2016) Introduced tree species in European forests: opportunities and challenges. European Forest Institute, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  53. Kueffer C, Kull C (2017) Non-native species and the aesthetics of nature. In: Hulme P, Vilà M, Ruiz G (eds) Impact of biological invasions on ecosystem services. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  54. Kueffer C, Pysek P, Richardson DM (2013) Integrative invasion science: model organisms, multi-site studies, unbiased meta-analysis, and invasion syndromes (Tansley review). New Phytol 200:615–633. Scholar
  55. Lee CE (2002) Evolutionary genetics of invasive species. Trends Ecol Evol 17:386–391. Scholar
  56. Levine JM, Vilà M, D’Antonio CM, Dukes JS, Grigulis K, Lavorel S (2003) Mechanisms underlying the impacts of exotic plant invasions. Proc R Soc B: Biol Sci 270:775–781. Scholar
  57. Lowe S, Browne M, Boudjelas S, De Poorter M (2000) 100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species: a selection from the global invasive species database, vol 12. Invasive Species Specialist Group, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  58. MA (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis (millennium ecosystem assessment). Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  59. Mack RN, Lonsdale WM (2001) Humans as global plant dispersers: getting more than we bargained for: current introductions of species for aesthetic purposes present the largest single challenge for predicting which plant immigrants will become future pests. Bioscience 51:95–102.;2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Maillet J, Lopez-Garcia C (2000) What criteria are relevant for predicting the invasive capacity of a new agricultural weed? The case of invasive American species in France. Weed Res-Oxford 40:11–26. Scholar
  61. Mazoyer M, Roudart L (2006) A history of world agriculture: from the neolithic age to current (trans: Membrez JH). Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  62. Meeus JHA, Wijermans MP, Vroom MJ (1990) Agricultural landscapes in Europe and their transformation. Landscape Urban Plann 18:289–352. Scholar
  63. Meier ES, Dullinger S, Zimmermann NE, Baumgartner D, Gattringer A, Hulber K (2014) Space matters when defining effective management for invasive plants. Diversity Distrib 20:1029–1043. Scholar
  64. Murphy DJ (2007) Imperial botany and the early scientific breeders. In: Murphy DJ (ed) People, plants and genes. The story of crops and humanity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 247–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nehrbass N, Winkler E (2007) Is the Giant Hogweed still a threat? An individual-based modelling approach for local invasion dynamics of Heracleum mantegazzianum. Ecol Model 201:377–384. Scholar
  66. Nesper M, Kueffer C, Krishnan S, Kushalappa CG, Ghazoul J (2017) Shade tree diversity enhances coffee production and quality in agroforestry systems in the Western Ghats. Agric Ecosyst Environ 247:172–181. Scholar
  67. Nie M, Shang L, Liao C, Li B (2017) Changes in primary production and carbon sequestration after plant invasions. In: Vilà M, Hulme PE (eds) Impact of biological invasions on ecosystem services. Springer, Cham, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  68. Osborne MA (2000) Acclimatizing the world: a history of the paradigmatic colonial science. Osiris 15:135–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Parker-Allie F, Musil CF, Thuiller W (2009) Effects of climate warming on the distributions of invasive Eurasian annual grasses: a South African perspective. Clim Change 94:87–103. Scholar
  70. Pauchard A et al (2016) Non-native and native organisms moving into high elevation and high latitude ecosystems in an era of climate change: new challenges for ecology and conservation. Biol Invasions 18:345–353. Scholar
  71. Pejchar L, Mooney HA (2009) Invasive species, ecosystem services and human well-being. Trends Ecol Evol 24:497–504. Scholar
  72. Peterson AT (2003) Predicting the geography of species’ invasions via ecological niche modeling. Q Rev Biol 78:419–433. Scholar
  73. Petitpierre B, McDougall K, Seipel T, Broennimann O, Guisan A, Kueffer C (2016) Will climate change increase the risk of plant invasions into mountains? Ecol Appl 26:530–544. Scholar
  74. Pickart AJ, Miller LM, Duebendorfer TE (1998) Yellow Bush Lupine invasion in Northern California Coastal Dunes I. Ecological impacts and manual restoration techniques. Restor Ecol 6:59–68. Scholar
  75. Pysek P, Hulme PE (2005) Spatio-temporal dynamics of plant invasions: linking pattern to process. Ecoscience 12:302–315. Scholar
  76. Pysek P, Richardson DM (2010) Invasive species, environmental change and management, and health. Ann Rev Environ Resour 35:25–55. Scholar
  77. Pysek P, Richardson DM, Pergl J, Jarosik V, Sixtova Z, Weber E (2008) Geographical and taxonomic biases in invasion ecology. Trends Ecol Evol 23:237–244. Scholar
  78. Richardson DM (2011) For Agrofor. In: Simberloff D, Rejmánek M (eds) Encyclopeia of biological invasions. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, pp 241–248Google Scholar
  79. Richardson DM, Hui C, Nuñez MA, Pauchard A (2014) Tree invasions: patterns, processes, challenges and opportunities. Biol Invasions 16:473–481. Scholar
  80. Richardson DM, Iponga DM, Roura-Pascual N, Krug RM, Milton SJ, Hughes GO, Thuiller W (2010) Accommodating scenarios of climate change and management in modelling the distribution of the invasive tree Schinus molle in South Africa. Ecography 33:1049–1061. Scholar
  81. Richardson DM, Rejmánek M (2011) Trees and shrubs as invasive alien species—a global review. Diversity and Distributions 17:788–809. Scholar
  82. Richter R, Berger UE, Dullinger S, Essl F, Leitner M, Smith M, Vogl G (2013) Spread of invasive ragweed: climate change, management and how to reduce allergy costs. J Appl Ecol 50:1422–1430. Scholar
  83. Rotherham I (2011) The history and perception of animals and plant invasions—the case of acclimatization and wild gardens. In: Rotherham ID, Lambert RA (eds) Invasive and introduced plants and animals: human perceptions, attitudes and approaches to management. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  84. Santos M, Freitas R, Crespí AL, Hughes SJ, Cabral JA (2011) Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: an application in North Portugal. Environ Res 111:960–966. Scholar
  85. Seebens H et al (2015) Global trade will accelerate plant invasions in emerging economies under climate change. Glob Change Biol 21:4128–4140. Scholar
  86. Shmueli G (2010) To explain or to predict? Stat Sci 25:289–310. Scholar
  87. Simberloff D et al (2013) Impacts of biological invasions: what’s what and the way forward. Trends Ecol Evol 28:58–66. Scholar
  88. Smith J (2010) The history of temperate agroforestry. Progressive Farming Trust Limited, BerkshireGoogle Scholar
  89. Soetaert K, Middelburg JJ, Herman PMJ, Buis K (2000) On the coupling of benthic and pelagic biogeochemical models. Earth Sci Rev 51:173–201. Scholar
  90. Stohlgren TJ, Ma P, Kumar S, Rocca M, Morisette JT, Jarnevich CS, Benson N (2010) Ensemble habitat mapping of invasive plant species. Risk Anal 30:224–235. Scholar
  91. TEEB (2010) The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: mainstreaming the economics of nature: a synthesis of the approach, conclusions and recommendations of TEEB. MaltaGoogle Scholar
  92. Theoharides KA, Dukes JS (2007) Plant Invasion across space and time: factors affecting nonindigenous species success during four stages of invasion. New Phytol 176:256–273. Scholar
  93. Thuiller W, Brotons L, Araújo MB, Lavorel S (2004) Effects of restricting environmental range of data to project current and future species distributions. Ecography 27:165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Thuiller W, Richardson DM, Rouget M, Procheş Ş, Wilson JR (2006) Interactions between environment, species traits, and human uses describe patterns of plant invasions. Ecology 87:1755–1769. Scholar
  95. Uden DR, Allen CR, Angeler DG, Corral L, Fricke KA (2015) Adaptive invasive species distribution models: a framework for modeling incipient invasions. Biol Invasions 17:2831–2850. Scholar
  96. van Klinken RD, Lawson BE, Zalucki MP (2009) Predicting invasions in Australia by a Neotropical shrub under climate change: the challenge of novel climates and parameter estimation. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 18:688–700. Scholar
  97. Vaz AS et al (2017) Integrating ecosystem services and disservices: insights from plant invasions. Ecosyst Serv 23:94–107. Scholar
  98. Vaz AS et al (2018) An indicator-based approach to analyse the effects of non-native tree species on multiple cultural ecosystem services. Ecol Ind 85:48–56. Scholar
  99. Venette RC et al (2010) Pest risk maps for invasive alien species: a roadmap for improvement. Bioscience 60:349–362. Scholar
  100. Vicente J, Randin CF, Goncalves J, Metzger MJ, Lomba A, Honrado J, Guisan A (2011) Where will conflicts between alien and rare species occur after climate and land-use change? A test with a novel combined modelling approach. Biol Invasions 13:1209–1227. Scholar
  101. Vicente JR et al (2013) Using life strategies to explore the vulnerability of ecosystem services to invasion by alien plants. Ecosystems 16:678–693. Scholar
  102. Vicente JR et al (2016) Cost-effective monitoring of biological invasions under global change: a model-based framework. J Appl Ecol 53:1317–1329. Scholar
  103. Vilà M, Hulme PE (2017) Impact of biological invasions on ecosystem services. Invading nature—Springer Series in invasion ecology, vol 12. Springer, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  104. Wasowicz P, Przedpelska-Wasowicz EM, Kristinsson H (2013) Alien vascular plants in Iceland: diversity, spatial patterns, temporal trends, and the impact of climate change. Flora—Morphol Distrib Funct Ecol Plants 208:648–673. Scholar
  105. Webber BL et al (2011) Modelling horses for novel climate courses: insights from projecting potential distributions of native and alien Australian acacias with correlative and mechanistic models. Diversity Distrib 17:978–1000. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joana R. Vicente
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Ana Sofia Vaz
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ana Isabel Queiroz
    • 4
  • Ana R. Buchadas
    • 1
  • Antoine Guisan
    • 5
    • 6
  • Christoph Kueffer
    • 7
  • Elizabete Marchante
    • 8
  • Hélia Marchante
    • 8
    • 9
  • João A. Cabral
    • 3
  • Maike Nesper
    • 10
  • Olivier Broennimann
    • 5
    • 6
  • Oscar Godoy
    • 11
  • Paulo Alves
    • 1
  • Pilar Castro-Díez
    • 12
  • Renato Henriques
    • 13
  • João P. Honrado
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Network in Biodiversity and Evolutionary BiologyResearch Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources (InBIO-CIBIO)VairãoPortugal
  2. 2.Faculty of SciencesUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  3. 3.Laboratory of Applied EcologyCITAB—Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto DouroVila RealPortugal
  4. 4.IHC-FCSH, NOVA de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  5. 5.Department of Ecology and Evolution, BiophoreUniversity of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  6. 6.Institute of Earth Surface Dynamics, Geopolis, University of LausanneLausanneSwitzerland
  7. 7.Department of Environmental Systems ScienceInstitute of Integrative Biology, ETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  8. 8.Department of Life SciencesCentre for Functional Ecology, University of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  9. 9.Escola Superior AgráriaInstituto Politécnico de CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  10. 10.Ecosystem Management, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  11. 11.Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC)SevilleSpain
  12. 12.Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of AlcaláAlcalá de Henares, MadridSpain
  13. 13.Departamento de Ciências da TerraInstituto de Ciências da Terra, Universidade do Minho, ICT/CCT/UM)BragaPortugal

Personalised recommendations