Advertisement

Ecologically Benign Invasions: The Invasion and Adaptation of Common Waxbills (Estrilda astrild) in Iberia

  • Gonçalo C. Cardoso
  • Luís Reino
Chapter
Part of the Environmental History book series (ENVHIS, volume 8)

Abstract

Invasive species often damage the ecosystems they colonise. But non-harmful biological invasions also exist in nature, and understanding which biological invasions are ecologically benign is important for prioritizing conservation goals. As a case study, we review research on the biological invasion of the Iberian Peninsula by the common waxbill ( Estrilda astrild ), a small estrildid finch from sub-Saharan Africa, with the objectives of assessing the potential for detrimental impact on Mediterranean ecosystems, and illustrating how biological invasions provide research models for diverse sub-disciplines in ecology. Common waxbills are traded as pets and, starting from birds escaped or released from captivity, have been invading the Iberian Peninsula since the 1960s. Range expansion initially used coastal areas and river valleys, and later progressed to more inhospitable sites at higher altitude or inland. Colonising those diverse ecological environments poses adaptive challenges, and phenotypic changes have accompanied this invasion. Differences in personality among populations appear adaptive to the different climatic regimens waxbills colonised, and changes in ornamentation during the invasion are best explained by ecologically-mediated differences in sexual selection among sites. These phenotypic changes show the usefulness of invasive species for research in behavioural and evolutionary ecology. The niche waxbills occupy in Iberia is marginal in relation to the ecological space occupied by native passerines, and waxbills appear not to compete strongly with natives. The differentiated ecological niche that waxbills occupy is in part due to anthropogenic influences (irrigation of agricultural areas, and food provided by exotic plants). We conclude that anthropogenic modification of the landscape creates novel niches that native species may not have filled in, and that thus can accommodate some exotic species with minimal interference on the native community.

Keywords

Avian exotic species Range expansion Adaptation Vacant ecological niche 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Martin Sullivan for help with Fig. 7.3, and the editors and a reviewer for useful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. We were supported by grants SFRH/BPD/110165/2015 and SFRH/BPD/93079/2013, and research projects PTDC/AAG-GLO/0463/2014–POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016583 and PTDC/BIA-EVF/4852/2014 from the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (including the “Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade—COMPETE”).

References

  1. Andersson M (1994) Sexual selection. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  2. Aplin LM, Farine DR, Morand-Ferron J, Sheldon BC (2012) Social networks predict patch discovery in a wild population of songbirds. Proc R Soc B 279:4199–4205PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Batalha HR, Ramos JA, Cardoso GC (2013) A successful avian invasion occupies a marginal ecological niche. Acta Oecol 49:92–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bell G (2010) Fluctuating selection: the perpetual renewal of adaptation in variable environments. Philos Trans R Soc B 365:87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blackburn TM, Lockwood JL, Cassey P (2009) Avian invasions: the ecology and evolution of exotic birds. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blackburn TM, Essl F, Evans T, Hulme PE, Jeschke JM, Kühn I, Kumschick S, Marková Z, Mrugała A, Nentwig W, Pergl J, Pyšek P, Rabitsch W, Ricciardi A, Richardson DM, Sendek A, Vilà M, Wilson JRU, Winter M, Genovesi P, Bacher S (2014) A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts. PLoS Biol 12:e1001850PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Botero CA, Rubenstein DR (2012) Fluctuating environments, sexual selection and the evolution of flexible mate choice in birds. PLoS ONE 7:e32311PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Botero CA, Boogert NJ, Vehrencamp SL, Lovette IJ (2009) Climatic patterns predict elaboration of song displays in mockingbirds. Curr Biol 19:1151–1155PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boughman JW (2001) Divergent sexual selection enhances reproductive isolation in sticklebacks. Nature 411:944–948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bradley BA, Mustard JF (2006) Characterizing the landscape dynamics of an invasive plant and risk of invasion using remote sensing. Ecol Appl 16:1132–1147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bridle JR, Vines TH (2007) Limits to evolution at range margins: when and why does adaptation fail? Trends Ecol Evol 22:140–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bro-Jørgensen J (2014) Will their armaments be their downfall? Large horn size increases extinction risk in bovids. Anim Conserv 17:80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burley NT, Price DK, Zann RA (1992) Bill color, reproduction and condition effects in wild and domesticated zebra finches. Auk 109:13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buswell JM, Moles AT, Hartley S (2011) Is rapid evolution common in introduced plant species? J Ecol 99:214–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Butin E, Porter AH, Elkinton J (2005) Adaptation during biological invasions and the case of Adeles tugae. Evol Ecol Res 7:887–900Google Scholar
  16. Canestrelli D, Bisconti R, Carere C (2016a) Bolder takes all? The behavioural dimension of biogeography. Trends Ecol Evol 31:35–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Canestrelli D, Porretta D, Lowe WH, Bisconti R, Carere C, Nascetti G (2016b) The tangled evolutionary legacies of range expansion and hybridization. Trends Ecol Evol 31:677–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cardoso GC, Mota PG (2008) Speciational evolution of coloration in the genus Carduelis. Evolution 62:753–762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cardoso GC, Batalha HR, Reis S, Lopes RJ (2014a) Increasing sexual ornamentation during a biological invasion. Behav Ecol 25:916–923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cardoso GC, Leitão AV, Funghi C, Batalha HR, Lopes RJ, Mota PG (2014b) Similar preferences for ornamentation in opposite- and same-sex choice experiments. J Evol Biol 27:2798–2806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cardoso GC, Rodrigues G, Alves P, Vicente JR, Honrado JP (submitted) Naturalized plants decrease diet similarity between an invasive bird and its most similar native speciesGoogle Scholar
  22. Carere C, Caramaschi D, Fawcett TW (2010) Covariation between personalities and individual differences in coping with stress: converging evidence and hypotheses. Curr Zool 56:728–740Google Scholar
  23. Carrascal LM, Villén-Pérez S, Seoane J (2012a) Thermal, food and vegetation effects on winter bird species richness of Mediterranean oakwoods. Ecol Res 27:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carrascal LM, Seoane J, Villén-Pérez S (2012b) Temperature and food constraints in wintering birds—an experimental approach in montane Mediterranean oakwoods. Community Ecol 13:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carvalho CF, Leitão AV, Funghi C, Batalha HR, Reis S, Mota PG, Lopes RJ, Cardoso GC (2013) Personality traits are related to ecology across a biological invasion. Behav Ecol 24:1081–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Catry P, Costa H, Elias G, Matias R (2010) Aves de Portugal: Ornitologia do território continental. Assírio e Alvim, LisboaGoogle Scholar
  27. Charter M, Izhaki I, Mocha YB, Kark S (2016) Nest-site competition between invasive and native cavity nesting birds and its implication for conservation. J Environ Manage 181:129–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clement P, Harris A, Davis J (1993) Finches & sparrows: an identification guide. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  29. Connolly BM, Pearson DE, Mack RN (2014) Granivory of invasive, naturalized, and native plants in communities differentially susceptible to invasion. Ecology 95:1759–1769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cox GW (2004) Alien species and evolution: the evolutionary ecology of exotic plants, animals, microbes, and interacting native species. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  31. Dall SRX, Houston AI, McNamara JM (2004) The behavioural ecology of personality: consistent individual differences from an adaptive perspective. Ecol Lett 7:734–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Elmore AJ, Mustard JF, Manning SJ (2003) Regional patterns of plant community response to changes in water: Owens Valley, California. Ecol Appl 13:443–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Engler JO, Stiels D, Schidelko K, Strubbe D, Quillfeldt P, Brambilla M (2017) Avian SDMs: current state, challenges, and opportunities. J Avian Biol 48:1483–1504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Equipa Atlas (2008) Atlas das Aves Nidificantes em Portugal (1999–2005). Assírio & Alvim, LisboaGoogle Scholar
  35. Exnerová A, Svádová KH, Fucíková E, Drent P, Stys P (2010) Personality matters: individual variation in reactions of naive bird predators to aposematic prey. Proc R Soc B 277:723–728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ferreira LFF (1980–1981) Contribuição para o conhecimento da distribuição de Estrilda astrild em Portugal. Boletim da Sociedade Portuguesa de Ciências Naturais 20:19–23Google Scholar
  37. Funghi C, Leitão AV, Ferreira AC, Mota PG, Cardoso GC (2015) Social dominance in a gregarious bird is related to body size but not to standard personality assays. Ethology 121:84–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Funghi C, Trigo S, Gomes ACR, Soares MC, Cardoso GC (2018) Release from ecological constraint erases sex difference in social ornamentation. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 72:67Google Scholar
  39. Gavrilets S (2003) Models of speciation: what have we learned in 40 years? Evolution 57:2197–2215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gomes ACR, Sorenson MD, Cardoso GC (2016) Speciation is associated with changing ornamentation rather than stronger sexual selection. Evolution 70:2823–2838PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goodenough AE (2010) Are the ecological impacts of alien species misrepresented? A review of the “native good, alien bad” philosophy. Community Ecol 11:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Grarock K, Lindenmayer DB, Wood JT, Tidemann CR (2013) Does human-induced habitat modification influence the impact of introduced species? A case study on cavity-nesting by the introduced common myna (Acridotheres tristis) and two australian native parrots. Environ Manage 52:958–970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gray DA, Cade WH (2000) Sexual selection and speciation in field crickets. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:14449–14454PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Guillette LM, Reddon AR, Hoeschele M, Sturdy CB (2011) Sometimes slower is better: slow-exploring birds are more sensitive to changes in a vocal discrimination task. Proc R Soc B 278:767–773PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Guisan A, Thuiller W (2005) Predicting species distribution: offering more than simple habitat models. Ecol Lett 8:993–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hale RE (2008) Evidence that context-dependent mate choice for parental care mirrors benefits to offspring. Anim Behav 75:1283–1290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Halley JM (1996) Ecology, evolution and 1/f noise. Trends Ecol Evol 11:33–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hau M, Perfito N, Moore IT (2008) Timing of breeding in tropical birds: mechanisms and evolutionary implications. Ornitol Neotrop 19:39–59Google Scholar
  49. Hill GE (2000) Energetic constraints on expression of carotenoid-based plumage coloration. J Avian Biol 31:559–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hill GE, Montgomerie R (1994) Plumage colour signals nutritional condition in the house finch. Proc R Soc B 258:47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hill GE, Hood WR, Huggins KA (2009) A multifactorial test of the effects of carotenoid access, food intake and parasite load on the production of ornamental feathers and bill coloration in American goldfinches. J Exp Biol 212:1225–1233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Howe HF, Brown JS (1999) Effects of birds and rodents on synthetic tallgrass communities. Ecology 80:1776–1781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hui C, Richardson DM (2017) Invasion dynamics. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kark S, Sol D (2005) Establishment success across convergent Mediterranean ecosystems: an analysis of bird introductions. Conserv Biol 19:1519–1527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Koolhaas JM, Korte SM, de Boer SF, van der Vegt BJ, van Reenen CG, Hopster H, de Jong IC, Ruis MAW, Blokhuis HJ (1999) Coping styles in animals: current status in behavior and stress physiology. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 23:925–935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kvist L, Ponnikas S, Belda EJ, Encabo I, Martínez E, Onrubia A, Hernández JM, Vera P, Neto JM, Monrós JS (2011) Endangered subspecies of the reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus witherbyi and E. s. lusitanica) in Iberian Peninsula have different genetic structures. J Ornithol 152:681–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Liker A, Bókony V (2009) Larger groups are more successful in innovative problem solving in house sparrows. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:7893–7898PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lopes RJ, Correia J, Batalha H, Cardoso GC (2018) Haemosporidian parasites missed the boat during the introduction of common waxbills (Estrilda astrild) in Iberia. Parasitol  http://doi.org/10.1017/S0031182018000331
  59. Lyon BE, Montgomerie R (2012) Sexual selection is a form of social selection. Phil Trans R Soc B 367:2266–2273PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Maia R, Rubenstein DR, Shawkey MD (2013) Key ornamental innovations facilitate diversification in an avian radiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:10687–10692PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Marques CIJ, Batalha HR, Cardoso GC (2016) Signalling with a cryptic trait: the regularity of barred plumage in common waxbills. Royal Soc Open Sci 3:160195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Martí R, Moral JC (2003) Atlas de las aves reproductoras de España. Dirección General de Conservación de la Naturaleza. Sociedad Española de Ornithología, MadridGoogle Scholar
  63. Matias R (2002) Aves exóticas que nidificam em Portugal continental. ICNB, LisboaGoogle Scholar
  64. McCowan LSC, Griffith SC (2015) Active but asocial: exploration and activity is linked to social behaviour in a colonially breeding finch. Behaviour 152:1145–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McGraw KJ (2006) Mechanisms of carotenoid-based coloration. In: Hill GE, McGraw KJ (eds) Bird coloration, vol 1. mechanisms and measurements. Harvard University Press, Boston, pp 177–242Google Scholar
  66. McGraw KJ, Schuetz JB (2004) The evolution of carotenoid coloration in estrildid finches: a biochemical analysis. Comp Biochem Physiol B 139:45–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. McGraw KJ, Hill GE, Parker RS (2005) The physiological costs of being colourful: nutritional control of carotenoid utilization in the American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis). Anim Behav 69:653–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McLain DK, Moulton MP, Redfearn TP (1995) Sexual selection and the risk of extinction of introduced birds on oceanic islands. Oikos 74:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Morand-Ferron J, Quinn J (2011) Larger groups of passerines are more efficient problem solvers in the wild. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:15898–15903PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Morse NB, Pellissier PA, Cianciola EN, Brereton RL, Sullivan MM, Shonka NK, Wheeler TB, McDowell WH (2014) Novel ecosystems in the Anthropocene: a revision of the novel ecosystem concept for pragmatic applications. Ecol Soc 19:12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Moya-Laraño J, Wise DH (2000) Survival regression analysis: a powerful tool for evaluating fighting and assessment. Anim Behav 60:307–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nicolaus M, Tinbergen JM, Ubels R, Both C, Dingemanse NJ (2016) Density fluctuations represent a key process maintaining personality variation in a wild passerine bird. Ecol Lett 19:478–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Payne R (2010) Family Estrildidae (Waxbills). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Christie DA (eds) Handbook of the birds of the world—weavers to new world warblers. Lynx Edicions, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  74. Pearson DE, Callaway RM, Maron JL (2011) Biotic resistance via granivory: establishment by invasive, naturalized, and native asters reflects generalist preference. Ecology 92:1748–1757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Perals D, Griffin AS, Bartomeus I, Sol D (2017) Revisiting the open-field test: what does it really tell us about animal personality? Anim Behav 123:69–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Phillips BL, Brown GP, Webb JK, Shine R (2006) Invasion and the evolution of speed in toads. Nature 439:803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pyšek P, Bacher S, Chytrý M, Jarošík V, Wild J, Celesti-Grapow L, Gassó N, Kenis M, Lambdon PW, Nentwig W, Pergl J, Roques A, Sádlo J, Solarz W, Vilà M, Hulme PE (2010) Contrasting patterns in the invasions of European terrestrial and freshwater habitats by alien plants, insects and vertebrates. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 19:319–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Reader RJ (1993) Control of seedling emergence by ground cover and seed predation in relation to seed size for some oldfield species. J Ecol 81:169–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Réale D, Reader SM, Sol D, McDougall P, Dingemanse NJ (2007) Integrating temperament in ecology and evolutionary biology. Biol Rev 82:291–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Reino L (2005) Variation partitioning for range expansion of an introduced species: the common waxbill Estrilda astrild in Portugal. J Ornithol 146:377–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reino LM, Silva T (1996a) Distribution and expansion of the common waxbill Estrilda astrild in Portugal. In: Holmes JS, Simons JR (eds) The introduction and naturalisation of birds. British Ornithologists’ Union and UK Joint Nature Conservation Committee, London, pp 103–106Google Scholar
  82. Reino LM, Silva T (1996b) Distribuição e expansão do Bico-de-lacre Estrilda astrild em Portugal. In: Farinha JC, Almeida J, Costa H (eds) I Congresso da SPEA, Vila Nova de Cerveira, pp 78–80Google Scholar
  83. Reino L, Silva T (1998) The distribution and expansion of the Common Waxbill (Estrilda astrild) in the Iberian Peninsula. Biol Conserv Fauna 102:163–167Google Scholar
  84. Reino L, Moya-Laraño J, Heitor AC (2009) Using survival regression to study patterns of expansion of invasive species: will the common waxbill expand with global warming? Ecography 32:237–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Richardson DM, Pyšek P, Rejmánek M, Barbour MG, Panetta FD, West CJ (2000) Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Divers Distrib 6:93–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rosa P, Nguyen V, Dubois F (2012) Individual differences in sampling behaviour predict social information use in zebra finches. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 66:1259–1265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rufino R (coord) (1989) Atlas das aves que nidificam em Portugal continental. Serviço Nacional de Parques Reservas e Conservação da Natureza, LisboaGoogle Scholar
  88. Sagarin RD, Gaines SD (2002) The ‘abundant center’ distribution: to what extent is it a biogeographical rule? Ecol Lett 5:137–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sanz-Aguilar A, Carrete M, Edelaar P, Potti J, Tella JL (2015) The empty temporal niche: breeding phenology differs between coexisting native and invasive birds. Biol Invasions 17:3275–3288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sax DF, Stachowicz JJ, Brown JH, Bruno JF, Dawson MN, Gaines SD, Grosberg RK, Hastings A, Holt RD, Mayfield MM, O’Connor MI, Rice WR (2007) Ecological and evolutionary insights from species invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 22:465–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Seehausen O, Terai Y, Magalhães IS, Carleton KL, Mrosso HD, Miyagi R, van der Sluijs I, Schneider MV, Maan ME, Tachida H, Imai H, Okada N (2008) Speciation through sensory drive in cichlid fish. Nature 455:620–626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Sexton JP, McIntyre PJ, Angert AL, Rice KJ (2009) Evolution and ecology of species range limits. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 40:415–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sheldon BC, Arponen H, Laurila A, Crochet PA, Merila J (2003) Sire coloration influences offspring survival under predation risk in the moorfrog. J Evol Biol 16:1288–1295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sick H (1997) Ornitologia Brasileira, 2ed. Nova Fronteira, Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  95. Sih A, Cote J, Evans M, Fogarty S, Pruitt J (2012) Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes. Ecol Lett 15:278–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Silva T, Reino LM, Borralho R (2002) A model for range expansion of an introduced species: the common waxbill Estrilda astrild in Portugal. Divers Distrib 8:319–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stapanian MA, Smith CC, Finck EJ (1999) The response of a Kansas winter bird community to weather, photoperiod, and year. Wilson Bull 111:550–558Google Scholar
  98. Stiels D, Schidelko K, Engler JO, van den Elzen R, Rödder D (2011) Predicting the potential distribution of the invasive common waxbill Estrilda astrild (Passeriformes: Estrildidae). J Ornithol 152:769–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Stiels D, Gaißer B, Schidelko K, Engler JO, Rödder D (2015) Niche shift in four non-native estrildid finches and implications for species distribution models. Ibis 157:75–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stoddard MC, Prum RO (2011) How colorful are birds? Evolution of the avian plumage color gamut. Behav Ecol 22:1042–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Strubbe D, Matthysen E (2009) Experimental evidence for nest-site competition between invasive ring-necked parakeets (Psittacula krameri) and native nuthatches (Sitta europaea). Biol Conserv 142:1588–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sullivan MJP, Davies RG, Reino L, Franco AMA (2012) Using dispersal information to model the species—environment relationship of spreading non-native species. Methods Ecol Evol 3:870–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sullivan MJP, Davies RG, Mossman HL, Franco AMA (2015) An anthropogenic habitat facilitates the establishment of non-native birds by providing underexploited resources. PLoS ONE 10:e0135833PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sullivan MJP, Franco AMA (2018) Changes in habitat associations during range expansion: disentangling the effects of climate and residence time. Biol Invasions. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-017-1616-9
  105. Thomas DB, McGraw KJ, Butler MW, Carrano MT, Madden O, James HF (2014) Ancient origins and multiple appearances of carotenoid-pigmented feathers in birds. Proc R Soc B 281:20140806PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tobias JA, Montgomerie R, Lyon BE (2012) The evolution of female ornaments and weaponry: social selection, sexual selection and ecological competition. Philos Trans R Soc B 367:2274–2293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Václavík T, Meentemeyer RK (2012) Equilibrium or not? Modelling potential distribution of invasive species in different stages of invasion. Divers Distrib 18:73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ventim R, Mendes L, Ramos JA, Cardoso H, Pérez-Tris J (2012) Local haemoparasites in introduced wetland passerines. J Ornithol 153:1253–1259 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Verbeek MEM, Drent PJ, Wiepkema PR (1994) Consistent individual differences in early exploratory behaviour of male great tits. Anim Behav 48:1113–1121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Vidal C, Reino LM (2002) Distribuição e expansão do bico-de-lacre (Estrilda astrild) na Galiza. In: Sánchez A (ed) Actas de las XV Jornadas Ornitológicas Españolas. SEO/BirdLife, Madrid, p 260Google Scholar
  111. Vilà M, Hulme PE (eds) (2017) Impact of biological invasions on ecosystem services. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  112. Welch AM (2003) Genetic benefits of a female mating preference in gray tree frogs are context-dependent. Evolution 57:883–893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wiebe KL (2003) Delayed timing as a strategy to avoid nest-site competition: testing a model using data from starlings and flickers. Oikos 100:291–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wolf M, Weissing FJ (2010) An explanatory framework for adaptive personality differences. Philos Trans R Soc B 365:3959–3968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wolf M, Weissing FJ (2012) Animal personalities: consequences for ecology and evolution. Trends Ecol Evol 27:452–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CIBIO/InBIO—Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic ResourcesUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Behavioural Ecology Group, Department of BiologyUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations