Mare Nostrum, Mare Quod Invaditur—The History of Bioinvasions in the Mediterranean Sea

  • Bella S. GalilEmail author
  • Agnese Marchini
  • Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi
Part of the Environmental History book series (ENVHIS, volume 8)


Intentional and unintentional introductions of marine species into the Mediterranean date back to the 15th century, when maritime shipping expanded with geographical discoveries and new mercantile horizons. Hull fouling on ships was recognized as a vector in the late 19th century, yet early introductions were overlooked because they had occurred centuries before the onset of biogeographical studies. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 drew scientific attention to the introduction of marine species and records of shipping and mariculture-introduced species kept appearing in the scientific literature, yet their number and impact were considered inconsequential. Concerns were raised only in the 1980s following conspicuous outbreaks with dire environmental and economic impacts in the Mediterranean and the neighboring Black Sea. The natural and cultural history of marine bioinvasions in the Mediterranean Sea is outlined, as framed by scientists and legislators, whereby perceptions of unintentionally introduced species evolved from ignorance and indifference to ‘biological pollution’ impairing potentially exploitable marine resources and harming indigenous species and habitats. The anthropogenic vectors at the root of the introductions into the Mediterranean Sea are summarized, and cases of environmental transformation, ecological damage, economic impact and human health issues are highlighted. The development of the legislative response, reflecting cultural attitudes to introductions and economic priorities, is briefly documented.


Environmental transformation Ecological damage Economic impact Human health Legislation 



BSG is grateful to Prof. Randall T. Schuh, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), New York, for gracious hosting, and to the librarians of the AMNH for their unfailing help.


  1. Al-Kholy AA, El-Wakeel SK (1975) Fisheries of the south-eastern Mediterranean Sea along the Egyptian coast, Soviet-Egyptian expedition 1970–1971. Bull Inst Ocean Fish 5:1–300Google Scholar
  2. Alomar C, Deudero S, Andaloro F et al (2016) Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder invasion modifies trophic niche in infralittoral rocky benthic community. Mar Environ Res 120:86–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Awada A, Chalhoub V, Awada L et al (2010) Coma profond aréactif reversible après intoxication par des abats d’un poisson méditerranéen [Deep non-reactive reversible coma after a Mediterranean neurotoxic fish poisoning]. Rev Neurol 166:337–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakir K, Aydin I (2016) New localities in the Aegean Sea for alien shrimps Penaeus aztecus (Ives, 1891) and Metapenaeus affinis (H. Milne Edwards, 1837). Acta Adriat 57(2):273–279Google Scholar
  5. Balata D, Piazzi L, Bulleri F (2015) Sediment deposition dampens positive effects of substratum complexity on the diversity of macroalgal assemblages. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 467:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balistreri P, Spiga A, Deidun A (2017) Further spread of the venomous jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica Galil, Spanier & Ferguson, 1990 (Rhizostomeae, Rhizostomatidae) in the western Mediterranean. Bioinvasions Rec 6(1):19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ballesteros E, Cebrian E, Alcoverro T (2007) Mortality of shoots of Posidonia oceanica following meadow invasion by the red alga Lophocladia lallemandii. Bot Mar 50(1):8–13Google Scholar
  8. Bartoli M, Nizzoli D, Viaroli P et al (2001) Impact of Tapes philippinarum farming on nutrient dynamics and benthic respiration in the Sacca di Goro. Hydrobiol 455:203–212Google Scholar
  9. Bavay A (1897) Au sujet du passage d’un mollusque de la Mer Rouge dans la Méditerranée. Bull Soc Zool Fr 22:199Google Scholar
  10. Bavay A (1898) Note sur les mollusques du Canal de Suez. Bull Soc Zool Fr 23:161–164Google Scholar
  11. Baziri H, Sghaier YR, Benamer I et al (2013) Alien marine species of Libya: first inventory and new records in El-Kouf National Park (Cyrenaica) and the neighbouring areas. Med Mar Sci 14(2):451–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beköz AB, Beköz S, Yilmaz E et al (2013) Consequences of the increasing prevalence of the poisonous Lagocephalus sceleratus in southern Turkey. Emerg Med J 30:954–955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bentur Y, Ashkar J, Lurie Y et al (2008) Lessepsian migration and tetrodotoxin poisoning due to Lagocephalus sceleratus in the eastern Mediterranean. Toxicon 52(8):964–968PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bini G (1983) Immissione antropica di molluschi esotici nel Mediterraneo: I—Il lago di Caprolace. Studi per l’Ecologia del Quaternario Firenze 5:113–125Google Scholar
  15. Bitar G, Bitar-Kouli S (1995) Impact de la pollution sur la répartition des peuplements de substrat dur à Beyrouth (Liban-Mediterranée Orientale). Rapports et Procès-Verbaux des Réunions, Vol XIV (Nouvelle série) Comm Int Expl Mer Médit 34:19Google Scholar
  16. Bodoy A, Maître-Allain T, Riva A (1981) Croissance comparée de la palourde européenne Ruditapes decussatus et de la palourde japonaise Ruditapes philippinarum dans un écosystème artificiel méditerranéen. Vie Marine 2:39–51Google Scholar
  17. Boscolo-Brusà R, Cacciatore F, Ponis E et al (2013) Clam culture in the Venice lagoon: stock assessment of Manila clam (Venerupis philippinarum) populations at a nursery site and management proposals to increase clam farming sustainability. Aquat Living Resour 26:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boudouresque CF, Verlaque M (2002) Assessing scale and impact of ship-transported alien macrophytes in the Mediterranean Sea. CIESM Workshop Monographs 2:53–61Google Scholar
  19. Boudouresque JF, Meinesz A, Ribera MA et al (1995) Spread of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) in the Mediterranean: possible consequences of a major ecological event. Sci Mar 59:21–29Google Scholar
  20. Boudouresque CF, Klein J, Ruitton S et al (2011) Biological invasion: the Thau Lagoon, a Japanese biological island in the Mediterranean Sea. In: Ceccaldi H-J, Dekeyser I, Girault M, Stora G (eds) Global change: mankind-marine environment interactions. Springer, Netherlands, pp 151–156Google Scholar
  21. Breber P (2002) Introduction and acclimatisation of the Pacific carpet clam, Tapes philippinarum, to Italian waters. In: Leppäkoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S (eds) Invasive aquatic species of Europe: distributions, impacts and management. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bulleri F, Piazzi L (2015) Variations in importance and intensity of competition underpin context dependency in the effects of an invasive seaweed on resident assemblages. Mar Biol 162(2):485–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bulleri F, Balata D, Bertocci I, Tamburello L, Benedetti-Cecchi L (2010) The seaweed Caulerpa racemosa on Mediterranean rocky reef: from passenger to driver of ecological change. Ecology 91:2205–2212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cabezas MP, Xavier R, Branco M et al (2014) Invasion history of Caprella scaura Templeton, 1836 (Amphipoda: Caprellidae) in the Iberian Peninsula: multiple introductions revealed by mitochondrial sequence data. Biol Invasions 16(10):2221–2245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Calman WT (1927) Report on the Crustacea Decapoda (Brachyura). Zoological Results of the Cambridge Expedition to the Suez Canal, 1924. XIII. Trans Zool Soc London 22:211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Calman WT (1950) Obituary, Dr. Robert Gurney. Nature 165:587–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Canu DM, Campostrini P, Riva SD et al (2011) Addressing sustainability of clam farming in the Venice Lagoon. Ecol Soc 16(3):26Google Scholar
  28. Cardeccia A, Marchini A, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A et al (2017) Assessing biological invasions in European Seas: Biological traits of the most widespread non-indigenous species. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci. Scholar
  29. Carlton JT (2009) Deep invasion ecology and the assembly of communities in historical time. In: Rilov G, Crooks JA (eds) Biological invasions in marine ecosystems. Ecological Studies 204, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp 13–56Google Scholar
  30. Catta JD (1876) Note sur quelques crustacés erratiques. Ann Sci Nat Zool 3:1–33Google Scholar
  31. Cecere E, Belmonte M, Portacci G et al (2016) Live seafood importation as a potential vector for alien introduction in the Taranto Seas (Southern Italy, Mediterranean Sea). Rapp Comm Int Expl Mer Médit 41:428Google Scholar
  32. Cesari P, Pellizzato M (1985) Molluschi pervenuti in Laguna di Venezia per apporti volontari o casuali. Acclimazione di Saccostrea commercialis (Iredale and Roughely, 1933) e di Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve, 1850). Boll Malacol 21(10–12):237–274Google Scholar
  33. Chamandi SC, Kallab K, Mattar H et al (2009) Human poisoning after ingestion of puffer fish caught From Mediterranean Sea—a case report. Middle East J Anesthesiology 20(2):285–288Google Scholar
  34. CIESM (2007) Impact of mariculture on coastal ecosystems. In: Briand (ed) CIESM Workshop Monograph n°32, CIESM Publisher, MonacoGoogle Scholar
  35. CIESM Atlas of Exotic Species in the Mediterranean (2017) Accessed 3 Aug 2017
  36. Cilia DP, Deidun A (2012) Branching out: mapping the spatial expansion of the Lessepsian invader mytilid Brachidontes pharaonis around the Maltese Islands. Mar Biodiv Rec 5:e28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Çinar ME, Bilecenoglu M, Özturk B et al (2011) An updated review of alien species on the coasts of Turkey. Mediterr Mar Sci 2(2):257–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Città metropolitana di Venezia (2014) Rendiconto della gestione del Gral all’esame della commissione Accessed 3 Aug 2017
  39. Clanzig S (1989) Introduction récente d’invertébrés dans les lagunes Mediterranéennes du Languedoc-Roussilon (France). Bull Soc Zool Fr 114(3):151–152Google Scholar
  40. Coll M, Piroddi C, Steenbeek J et al (2010) The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats. PLoS ONE 5(8):e11842PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cruscanti M, Innocenti G, Bremer A et al (2015) First report of the brown shrimp Penaeus aztecus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae) in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Mar Biodiv Rec 8:e81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cvitković I, Despalatović M, Grubelić I et al (2013) Occurrence of Paraleucilla magna (Porifera: Calcarea) in the eastern Adriatic Sea. Acta Adriat 54(1):93–100Google Scholar
  43. Dailianis T, Akyol O, Babali N et al (2016) New Mediterranean biodiversity records (July 2016). Mediterr Mar Sci 17(2):608–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Davis MH, Davis ME (2009) Styela clava (Tunicata, Ascidiacea): a new threat to the Mediterranean shellfish industry? Aquat Invasions 4:283–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (2017) Alien by country. In: European summary. Accessed 3 Aug 2017
  46. Deudero S, Box A, Alós J et al (2011) Functional changes due to invasive species: food web shifts at shallow Posidonia oceanica seagrass beds colonized by the alien macroalga Caulerpa racemosa. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 93(2):106–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Deval MC, Kaya Y, Güven O et al (2010) An unexpected find of the western Atlantic shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus (Ives, 1891) (Decapoda, Penaeidae) in Antalya Bay, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Crustaceana 83(12):1531–1537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Doğdu SA, Uyan A, Uygur N et al (2016) First record of the Indo-Pacific striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg, 1787) from Turkish marine waters. Natural and Engineering Sciences 1(2):25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dridi S, Romdhane MS, Elcafsi M (2014) Gametogenic cycle of Crassostrea gigas in contrasting Mediterranean habitats: marine (Gulf of Tunis) and continental (Bizert lagoon) culture sites. J Biol Res (Thessalon) 21:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dumay O, Fernandez C, Pergent G (2002) Primary production and vegetative cycle in Posidonia oceanica when in competition with the green algae Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 82(3):379–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. EastMed (2010) Report of the sub-regional technical meeting on the Lessepsian migration and its impact on Eastern Mediterranean fishery. Scientific and institutional cooperation to support responsible fisheries in the Eastern Mediterranean. GCP/INT/041/EC—GRE—ITA/TD-04, Athens, pp 138Google Scholar
  52. EC [European Commission] (1991) Council directive of 28 January 1991 concerning the animal health conditions governing the placing on the market of aquaculture animals and products (91/67/EEC). Off J Eur Union L46:118Google Scholar
  53. EC [European Commission] (1995) Council directive of 22 December 1995 introducing minimum Community measures for the control of certain diseases affecting bivalve mollusks (95/70/EC). Off J Eur Union L332:3344Google Scholar
  54. EC [European Commission] (2003) Commission decision of 14 November 2003 laying down the animal health conditions and certification requirements for imports of mollusks, their eggs and gametes for further growth, fattening, relaying of human consumption (2003/804/EC). Off J Eur Union L302:22–33Google Scholar
  55. EC [European Commission] (2006a) Council directive (2006/88/EC) of 24 October 2006 on animal health requirements for aquaculture animals and products thereof, and on the prevention and control of certain diseases in aquatic animals. Off J Eur Union L328:14–56Google Scholar
  56. EC [European Commission] (2006b) Assessment of the status, development and diversification of fisheries-dependent communities. Sète-France. Fish/2006/09. In: Regional social and economic impacts of change in fisheries-dependent communities (
  57. EC [European Community] (2007) Council regulation (708/2007) of 11 June 2007 concerning use of alien and locally absent species in aquaculture. Off J Eur Union L168/1:1–17Google Scholar
  58. EC [European Community] (2008) Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Off J Eur Union L 164: 19–40Google Scholar
  59. EEA [European Environment Agency] (2015) State of Europe’s Seas. Technical report No. 2/2015, European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, pp 220Google Scholar
  60. Eisenman A, Rusetski V, Sharivker D et al (2008) An odd pilgrim in the holyland. Am J Emerg Med 26(3):383.e3–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. El-Zarka S, Koura R (1965) Seasonal fluctuations in production of the principal edible fish in the Mediterranean Sea off the United Arab Republic. Proc Gen Fish Coun Medit 8:227–259Google Scholar
  62. Fabioux C, Huvet A, Lapègue S et al (2002) Past and present geographical distribution of populations of Portuguese (Crassostrea angulata) and Pacific (C. gigas) oysters along the European and north African Atlantic coasts. Haliotis 31:33–44Google Scholar
  63. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2014) Fishery and aquaculture statistics: Global Aquaculture Production 1950–2012. Available from Accessed 3 Jan 2017
  64. Farrag MMS, El Haweet AAK, Akel A et al (2015) Stock status of pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789) along the Egyptian coast, eastern Mediterranean Sea. Am J Life Sci 3:81–91Google Scholar
  65. Farrag MMS, El Haweet AAK, Akel A et al (2016) Occurrence of puffer fishes (Tetraodontidae) in the eastern Mediterranean, Egyptian coast-filling in the gap. BioInvasions Rec 5(1):47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Felline S, Mollo E, Ferramosca A et al (2014) Can a marine pest reduce the nutritional value of Mediterranean fish flesh? Mar Biol 161:1275–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ferrario J, Savini D, Lodola A et al (2013) Risk of non-indigenous species introduction via international seafood trade: the case of Chioggia fish market. Biol Mar Mediterr 20(1):236–237Google Scholar
  68. Ferrario J, Marchini A, Borrelli P et al (2016) A fuzzy ‘boater’model to detect fouling and spreading risk of non-indigenous species by recreational boats. J Environ Manag 182:198–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Fischer P (1865) Note sur les faunes conchyliologiques des deux rivages de l’isthme de Suez. J Conch 13:241–248Google Scholar
  70. Fischer P (1870) Sur la faune conchyliologique marine des baies de Suez et de l’Akabah. J Conch 18:161–179Google Scholar
  71. Fischer P (1871) Sur la faune conchyliologique marine de la baie de Suez. J Conch 19:209–226Google Scholar
  72. Fox HM (1924) The migration of a Red Sea crab through the Suez Canal. Nature (London) 113:714–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Fox HM (1929) Summary of results. XXXIX. Zoological results of the Cambridge expedition to the Suez Canal. 1924. I. Trans Zool Soc Lond 22(6):843–863Google Scholar
  74. Friedel N, Scolnik D, Adir D et al (2016) Severe anaphylactic reaction to Mediterranean jellyfish (Rhopilema nomadica) envenomation: case report. Toxicol Rep 3:427–429PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Galil BS (2000) A sea under siege–alien species in the Mediterranean. Biol Invasions 2(2):177 EU Regulation 1143/2014 186Google Scholar
  76. Galil BS (2007) Seeing red: alien species along the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Aquat Invasions 2(4):281–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Galil B (2009) Control and eradication of invasive aquatic invertebrates. In Gherardi F, Corti C, Gualtieri M (eds) Biodiversity conservation and habitat management, vol. II. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS)Google Scholar
  78. Galil BS, Gevili R (2014) Zoobotryon verticillatum (Bryozoa: Ctenostomatida: Vesiculariidae), a new occurrence on the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Mar Biodiv Rec 7:e17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Galil BS, Marchini A, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A et al (2014) International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas. Ethol Ecol Evol 26(2–3):152–171PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Galil BS, Innocenti G, Douek J et al (2017a) Foul play? On the rapid spread of the brown shrimp Penaeus aztecus Ives, 1891 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae) in the Mediterranean, with new records from the Gulf of Lion and the southern Levant. Mar Biodiv. Scholar
  81. Galil BS, Marchini A, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A et al (2017b) The enlargement of the Suez Canal—Erythraean introductions and management challenges. Manag Biol Invasions (in press)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Galil BS, Marchini A, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2017c) East is East and West is West? Management of marine bioinvasions in the Mediterranean Sea. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci.
  83. Gallitelli M, Ungaro N, Addante LM et al (2005) Respiratory illness as a reaction to tropical algal blooms occurring in a temperate climate. JAMA 293(21):2595–2600Google Scholar
  84. Gardiner JS (1924) The biology of the Suez Canal. Nature 114:520–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gennaro P, Piazzi L, Persia E et al (2015) Nutrient exploitation and competition strategies of the invasive seaweed Caulerpa cylindracea. Eur J Phycol 50(4):384–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. George CJ, Athanassiou V (1967) A two year study of the fishes appearing in the seine fishery of St. George Bay, Lebanon. Ann Mus Civ St Nat Genova 76:237–294Google Scholar
  87. Giakoumi S (2014) Distribution patterns of the invasive herbivore Siganus luridus (Rüppell, 1829) and its relation to native benthic communities in the central Aegean Sea, Northeastern Mediterranean. Mar Ecol 35(1):96–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Giesbrecht W (1897) Ueber pelagische Copepoden des Rothen Meeres. Zool Jahrb, Abt Syst. Geogr Biol Tiere 9:315–328Google Scholar
  89. Golani D, Ben Tuvia A (1995) Lessepsian migration and the Mediterranean Fisheries of Israel. In: Armantrout NB (ed) Condition of the world’s aquatic habitats. Proceedings of the World Fisheries Congress. Theme 1. Science Publishers, Lebanon, New Hampshire, pp 279–289Google Scholar
  90. Golani D, Sonin O, Rubinstein G (2015) Records of Paralichthys lethostigma and Sciaenops ocellatus in the Mediterranean and Channa micropeltes in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel. Mar Biodiv Rec 8:e39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Goren M, Galil BS, Diamant A et al (2016) Invading up the food web? Invasive fish in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea. Mar Biol 163:180. Scholar
  92. Gorgy S (1966) Les pêcheries et le milieu marin dans le secteur Méditerranéen de la République Arabe Unie. Rev Trav Inst Pêches Marit 30(1):25–92Google Scholar
  93. Grade A, Chairi H, Lallias D et al (2016) New insights about the introduction of the Portuguese oyster, Crassostrea angulata, into the North East Atlantic from Asia based on a highly polymorphic mitochondrial region. Aquat Living Resour 29(4):404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Grizel H, Héral M (1991) Introduction into France of the Japanese oyster (Crassostrea gigas). J Cons Int Explor Mer 47:399–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Gruvel A (1936) Contribution à l’étude de la bionomie générale et de l’exploitation de la faune du Canal de Suez. Mém Inst Égypte 29:1–229Google Scholar
  96. Gweta S, Spanier E, Bentur Y (2008) Venomous fish injuries along the Israeli Mediterranean coast: scope and characterization. Isr Med Assoc J 10(11):783–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. IMO (International Maritime Organization) (1991) International guidelines for preventing the introduction of unwanted aquatic organisms and pathogens from ships’ ballast water and sediment discharges, London. Resolution MEPC 50(31):16Google Scholar
  98. IMO (International Maritime Organization) (2016) Global treaty to halt invasive aquatic species to enter into force in 2017. Accessed 3 Aug 2017
  99. Jongma DN, Campo D, Dattolo E et al (2013) Identity and origin of a slender Caulerpa taxifolia strain introduced into the Mediterranean Sea. Bot Mar 56(1):27–39Google Scholar
  100. Jordan DS, Hubbs CL (1917) XVIII. Notes on a collection of fishes from Port Said, Egypt. Ann Carnegie Mus 11:461–468Google Scholar
  101. Katsanevakis S, Tsiamis K, Ioannou G et al (2009) Inventory of alien marine species of Cyprus (2009). Mediterr Mar Sci 10(2):109–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Katsanevakis S, Wallentinus I, Zenetos A et al (2014) Impacts of invasive alien marine species on ecosystem services and biodiversity: a pan-European review. Aquat Invasions 9(4):391–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Keller C (1883) Die Fauna im Suez-Kanal und die Diffusion der Mediterranean und Erythräischen Tierwelt. Neue Denkschriften der allgemeinen Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für die gesamten naturwissenschaften Ser. 3, 28:1–39Google Scholar
  104. Kevrekidis K (2014) The occurrence of the Atlantic penaeid prawn Farfantepenaeus aztecus (Ives, 1891) in the Thermaikos Gulf (Aegean Sea, Eastern Mediterranean): considerations on the potential establishment and impact on the autochthonous Melicertus kerathurus (Forskål, 1775). Crustaceana 87:1606–1619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Kheifets J, Rozhavsky B, Girsh Solomonovich Z et al (2012) Severe Tetrodotoxin poisoning after consumption of Lagocephalus sceleratus (pufferfish, fugu) fished in Mediterranean Sea, treated with Cholinesterase inhibitor. Case Rep Crit Care 2012:782507PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. Lindegg G (1934) La “Mercierella enigmatica” Fauvel nello stagno di Cabras in Sardegna. Natura, Milano 25:135–145Google Scholar
  107. Maltagliati F, Lupi L, Castelli A, Pannacciulli FG (2016) The genetic structure of the exotic ascidian Styela plicata (Tunicata) from Italian ports, with a reappraisal of its worldwide genetic pattern. Mar Ecol 37(3):492–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Marchini A, Ferrario J, Minchin D (2015a) Marinas may act as hubs for the spread of the pseudoindigenous bryozoan Amathia verticillata (Delle Chiaje, 1822) and its associates. Sci Mar 79(3):355–365Google Scholar
  109. Marchini A, Ferrario J, Sfriso A et al (2015b) Current status and trends of biological invasions in the Lagoon of Venice, a hotspot of marine NIS introductions in the Mediterranean Sea. Biol Invasions 17(10):2943–2962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Marchini A, Ferrario J, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2016) The relative importance of aquaculture and shipping as vectors of introduction of marine alien species: the case of Olbia (Sardinia). Rapp Comm Int Expl Mer Médit 41:430Google Scholar
  111. Marić M, Ferrario J, Marchini A, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Minchin D (2017) Rapid assessment of marine non-indigenous species on mooring lines of leisure craft: new records in Croatia (eastern Adriatic Sea). Mar Biodiv. Scholar
  112. Marten E (1887) Conchylien aus dem Suezkanal. Sitzungs-Bericht der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin 6:89–96Google Scholar
  113. Meinesz A, Hesse B (1991) Introduction et invasion de l’algue tropicale Caulerpa taxifolia en Méditerranée nord-occidentale. Oceanol Acta 14(4):415–426Google Scholar
  114. Meinesz A, Belsher T, Thibaut T et al (2001) The introduced green alga Caulerpa taxifolia continues to spread in the Mediterranean. Biol Invasions 3(2):201–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Micheli F, Halpern BS, Walbridge S et al (2013) Cumulative human impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea marine ecosystems: assessing current pressures and opportunities. PLoS ONE 8(12):e79889PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Minchin D, Floerl O, Savini D, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2006) Small craft and the spread of exotic species. In: Davenport J, Davenport JL (eds) The ecology of transportation: managing mobility for the environment. Springer, Netherlands, pp 99–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Mineur F, Belsher T, Johnson MP et al (2007) Experimental assessment of oyster transfers as a vector for macroalgal introductions. Biol Conserv 137:237–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mineur F, Johnson MP, Maggs CA (2008) Macroalgal introductions by hull fouling on recreational vessels: Seaweeds and sailors. Environ Manage 42:667–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Mineur F, Le Roux A, Maggs CA et al (2014) Positive feedback loop between introductions of non-native marine species and cultivation of oysters in Europe. Conserv Biol 28(6):1667–1676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Montefalcone M, Morri C, Parravicini V et al (2015) A tale of two invaders: divergent spreading kinetics of the alien green algae Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa cylindracea. Biol Invasions 17(9):2717–2728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Musco L, Andaloro F, D’Anna G et al (2015) Impatto di Caulerpa taxifolia var. distichophylla su macro- e meiofauna associate a Posidonia oceanica. Biol Mar Mediterr 22(1):136–137Google Scholar
  122. Nader M, Indary S, Boustany L (2012) The pufferfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789) in the eastern Mediterranean. GCP/INT/041/EC—GRE—ITATD—10, FAO EastMed, pp 41Google Scholar
  123. Nunes PALD, Markandya A (2008) Economic value of damage caused by marine bio-invasions: lessons from two European case studies. ICES J Mar Sci 65:775–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Occhipinti Ambrogi A (2002) Current status of aquatic introductions in Italy. In: Leppäkoski E, Gollasch S, Olenin S (eds) Invasive aquatic species of Europe: distributions, impacts and management. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 311–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Occhipinti-Ambrogi A, Marchini A, Cantone G et al (2011) Alien species along the Italian coasts: an overview. Biol Invasions 13(1):215–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Oliverio M, Taviani M (2003) The Eastern Mediterranean Sea: tropical invasions and niche opportunities in a “Godot Basin”. Biogeographia 24:313–327Google Scholar
  127. Oren OH (1957) Changes in the temperature of the eastern Mediterranean Sea in relation to the catch of the Israel trawl fishery during the years 1954–55 and 1955–56. Bull Inst Océanogr 1102:1–13Google Scholar
  128. Ounifi-Ben Amor K, Rifi M, Ghanem R (2016) Update of alien fauna and new records from Tunisian marine waters. Medit Mar Sci 17(1):124–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Özcan T, Galil BS, Bakir K et al (2006) The first record of the banana prawn Fenneropenaeus merguiensis (De Man, 1888) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Penaeidae) from the Mediterranean Sea. Aquat Invasions 1:286–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Öztürk B, Işinibilir M (2010) An alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and its impacts to the Eastern Mediterranean part of Turkey. J Black Sea/Medit Environ 16(2):149–156Google Scholar
  131. Panova M, Blakeslee AMH, Miller AW et al (2011) Glacial history of the North Atlantic marine snail, Littorina saxatilis, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages. PLoS ONE 6(3):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Pećarević M, Mikus J, Cetinic AB et al (2013) Introduced marine species in croatian Waters (eastern Adriatic Sea). Mediterr Mar Sci 14(1):224–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Pellizzato M, Da Ros L (2005) Clam farming quality as a management tool: a proposal based on recent studies in Northern Adriatic lagoons. Aquacult Int 13:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Penna A (2014) Potential allochthonous microalgae in the Mediterranean Sea: a contribution addressing to this statement. Biol Mar Mediterr 21(1):52–56Google Scholar
  135. Perlmutter A (1956) Sea fisheries. Report to the government of Israel. Technical assistance program USOM agricultural report No 13, pp 58Google Scholar
  136. Pernet F, Lupo C, Bacher C et al (2016) Infectious diseases in oyster aquaculture require a new integrated approach. Phil Trans R Soc B 371:20150213PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Piazzi L, Ceccherelli G (2002) Effects of competition between two introduced Caulerpa. Mar Ecol Progr Ser 225:189–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Piazzi L, Cinelli F (2000) Effects of the spread of the introduced Rhodophyceae Acrothamnion preissii and Womersleyella setacea on the macroalgal community of Posidonia oceanica rhizomes in the western Mediterranean Sea. Cryptog Algol 21(3):291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Picciotto M, Bertuccio C, Giacobbe S et al (2016) Caulerpa taxifolia var. distichophylla: a further stepping stone in the western Mediterranean. Mar Biodiv Rec 9(1):73Google Scholar
  140. Plan Bleu (2014) Economic and social analysis of the uses of the coastal and marine waters in the Mediterranean, characterization and impacts of the Fisheries, Aquaculture, Tourism and recreational activities, Maritime transport and Offshore extraction of oil and gas sectors. Technical Report UNEP(DEPI)/MED WG.401/6 4th Meeting of the EcAp Coordination Group, Athens, Greece, 9–10 Oct 2014. Plan Bleu, ValbonneGoogle Scholar
  141. Pliny (1983) Natural history, iii:8–11. Loeb classical library no. 353. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, p 616Google Scholar
  142. Por FD (1971) One hundred years of Suez Canal—A century of lessepsian migration: retrospect and viewpoints. Syst Zool 20(2):138–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Por FD (1978) Lessepsian Migration— the influx of Red Sea Biota into the Mediterranean by way of the Suez Canal. Ecological Studies vol 23, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York, pp 228Google Scholar
  144. Pranovi F, Franceschini G, Casale V et al (2006) An ecological imbalance induced by a non-native species: the Manila clam in the Venice Lagoon. Biol Invasions 8:595–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Pranovi F, Libralato S, Raicevich S et al (2003) Mechanical clam dredging in Venice Lagoon: effects on ecosystem stability evaluated with a trophic mass-balance model. Mar Biol 143:393–403Google Scholar
  146. Pusceddu A, Fraschetti S, Scopa M et al (2016) Meiofauna communities, nematode diversity and C degradation rates in seagrass (Posidonia oceanica L.) and unvegetated sediments invaded by the algae Caulerpa cylindracea (Sonder). Mar Environ Res 119:88–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Raimbault R (1964) Croissance des huitres atlantiques élevées dans les eaux méditerranéennes françaises. Science et Pêche 126:1–10Google Scholar
  148. Rayssac N, Pérignon A, Gervasoni E et al (2012) Projet PRONAMED 2010–2011. Évaluation du potentiel d’approvisionnement naturel en naissains d’huîtres creuses en Méditerranée—Rapport final. Accessed 11 Jan 2017
  149. Regional Activity Center for Specially Protected Areas (2017) Non-indigenous species. Accessed 3 Aug 2017
  150. Rögl F (1997) Palaeogeographic Considerations for Mediterranean and Paratethys Seaways (Oligocene to Miocene). Ann Naturhist Mus Wien Ser A Mineral Petrogr Geol Palaontol Anthropol Prahist 99:279–310Google Scholar
  151. Ros M, Vázquez-Luis M, Guerra-García JM (2013) The role of marinas and recreational boating in the occurrence and distribution of exotic caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the Western Mediterranean: Mallorca Island as a case study. J Sea Res 83:94–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Roy HE, Adriaens T, Aldridge DC et al (2015) Invasive Alien species—prioritising prevention efforts through horizon scanning. ENV.B.2/ETU/2014/0016. European Commission, pp 231Google Scholar
  153. Ruiz GM, Carlton JT, Grosholz ED et al (1997) Global invasions of marine and estuarine habitats by non-indigenous species: mechanisms, extent, and consequences. Am Zool 37(6):621–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Saglam H, Düzgünes E (2013) Feeding behaviour of invasive whelk, Rapana venosa Valenciennes, 1846 from the south-eastern Black Sea, Turkey. Rapp Comm Int Expl Mer Médit 40:587Google Scholar
  155. Sala E, Kizilkaya Z, Yildirim D et al (2011) Alien marine fishes deplete algal biomass in the eastern Mediterranean. PLoS ONE 6(2):e17356PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Samaha C, zu Dohna H, Bariche M (2016) Analysis of Red Sea fish species’ introductions into the Mediterranean reveals shifts in introduction patterns. J Biogeog 43(9):1797–1807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sancholle M (1988) Présence de Fucus spiralis (Phaeophyceae) en Méditerranee occidentale. Cryptog Algol 9:157–161Google Scholar
  158. Sato S, Nishimura T, Uehara K et al (2011) Phylogeography of Ostreopsis along West Pacific Coast, with special reference to a novel clade from Japan. PLoS ONE 6(12):e27983PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Savini D, Marchini A, Forni G et al (2006) Touristic harbours and secondary spread of alien species. Biol Mar Mediterr 13:760–763Google Scholar
  160. Sciberras M, Schembri PJ (2007) A critical review of records of alien marine species from the Maltese Islands and surrounding waters (Central Mediterranean). Mediterr Mar Sci 8(1):41–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Seebens H, Gastner MT, Blasius B (2013) The risk of marine bioinvasion caused by global shipping. Ecol Lett 16(6):782–790PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Segarra A, Pépin JF, Arzul I et al (2010) Detection and description of a particular Ostreid herpesvirus 1 genotype associated with massive mortality outbreaks of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in France in 2008. Virus Res 153(1):92–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sfriso A, Facca C (2013) Annual growth and environmental relationships of the invasive species Sargassum muticum and Undaria pinnatifida in the lagoon of Venice. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 129:162–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sghaier YR, Zakhama-Sraieb R, Benamer I, Charfi-Cheikhrouha F (2011) Occurrence of the seagrass Halophila stipulacea (Hydrocharitaceae) in the southern Mediterranean Sea. Bot Mar 54(6):575–582Google Scholar
  165. Shiganova TA (1998) Invasion of the Black Sea by the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and recent changes in pelagic community structure. Fish Oceanogr 7(3/4):305–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Solidoro C, Melaku Canu D, Rossi R (2003) Ecological and economic considerations on fishing and rearing of Tapes philippinarum in the lagoon of Venice. Ecol Model 170:303–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Souissi JB, Rifi M, Ghanem R et al (2014) Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789) expands through the African coasts towards the Western Mediterranean Sea: a call for awareness. Manag Biol Invasions 5(4):357–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Steen F, Aragay J, Zuljevic A et al (2017) Tracing the introduction history of the brown seaweed Dictyota cyanoloma (Phaeophyceae, Dictyotales) in Europe. Eur J Phycol.
  169. Steinitz W (1919) Memorial on the founding of a sea-station on the coast of Palestine for zoological investigations. Manuscript, pp 16Google Scholar
  170. Steinitz W (1927) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Küstenfauna Palästinas. I. Pubbl Staz Zool Napoli 8(3–4):311–353Google Scholar
  171. Steinitz H (1970) A critical List of Immigrants via the Suez Canal. Biota of the Red Sea and Eastern Mediterranean, pp 59–63 [mimeo]Google Scholar
  172. Stentiford GD, Lightner DV (2011) Cases of white spot disease (WSD) in European shrimp farms. Aquaculture 319:302–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Stock JH (1993) Copepoda (Crustacea) associated with commercial and non-commercial Bivalvia in the East Scheldt, The Netherlands. Bijdr Dierk 63:61–64Google Scholar
  174. Suez Canal Authority (2017) Stages in developing Suez Canal. In: Canal characteristics. Accessed 3 Aug 2017
  175. Superyacht Business Happening (2015) Mediterranean as a strategic area. In: Industry outlook. Accessed 3 Aug 2017
  176. Terlizzi A, Felline S, Lionetto MG et al (2011) Detrimental physiological effects of the invasive alga Caulerpa racemosa on the Mediterranean white sea bream Diplodus sargus. Aquat Biol 12:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Thompson IC, Scott A (1903) Report on the Copepoda collected by Professor Herdman, at Ceylon, in 1902. Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fisheries—1903—Supplementary reports 7: 227–307Google Scholar
  178. Thunell RC, Williams DF, Kennet JP (1977) Late Quaternary paleoclimatology, stratigraphy and sapropel history in eastern Mediterranean deep-sea sediments. Mar icropaleontol 2:371–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Tillier JB (1902) Le Canal de Suez et sa faune ichthyologique. Mem Soc Zool France 15(3–4):279–318Google Scholar
  180. Tillier JB, Bavay A (1905) Les mollusques testacés du Canal de Suez. Bull Soc Zool Fr 30:170–181Google Scholar
  181. Tillier JB, Bavay A (1906) Au sujet des mollusques testacés du Canal de Suez. Bull Soc Zool Fr 31:129–131Google Scholar
  182. Tortonese E (1973) Facts and perspectives related to the spreading of Red Sea organisms into the eastern Mediterranean. Ann Mus Civ St Nat Giacomo Doria 79:322–329Google Scholar
  183. Tosun MS (2011) Demographic divide and labor migration in the Euro-Mediterranean Region. Institute for the Study of Labor, Discussion Paper No 6188. pp 23Google Scholar
  184. Tournier H (1972) Conditions d’acclirriatation des crevettes Penaeus kerathurus et P. japonicus dans les eaux du littoral languedocien. Science et Pêche 213:1–13Google Scholar
  185. Tsiamis K, Aydogan Ö, Bailly N et al (2015) New Mediterranean biodiversity records (July 2015). Mediterr Mar Sci 16(2):472–488Google Scholar
  186. Turolla E (2008) La venericoltura in Italia. In: Lovatelli A, Farías A, Uriarte I (eds) Estado actual del cultivo y manejo de moluscos bivalvos y su proyección futura: factores que afectan su sustentabilidad en América Latina. Taller Técnico Regional de la FAO, 20–24 Aug 2007, Puerto Montt, Chile. FAO Actas de Pesca y Acuicultura, no 12, FAO, Rome, pp 177–188Google Scholar
  187. UN (United Nations) (1982) United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. pp 202Google Scholar
  188. UNEP/MAP (2007) Annex XIII. Draft Guidelines for Controlling the Vectors of Introduction into the Mediterranean of Non-Indigenous Species and Invasive Marine Species. In: Report of the eighth meeting of national Focal Points for SPAs, UNEP(DEPI)/MED WG.308/14Google Scholar
  189. UNEP/MAP (2013) Draft decision on the Ecosystems Approach including adopting definitions of Good Environmental Status (GES) and targets. Meeting of the MAP Focal Points. UNEP(DEPI)/MED WG.387/7, pp 46Google Scholar
  190. UNEP/MAP (2016) Annex III. Updated action plan concerning species introductions and invasive species in the Mediterranean Sea. In: Report of the 19th ordinary meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention for the protection of the marine environment and the coastal region of the Mediterranean and its protocols, UNEP(DEPI)/MED IG.22/28 (Decision IG.22/15), pp 602–611Google Scholar
  191. Vaillant L (1865) Recherches sur la faune malacologique de la baie de Suez. J Conch 13:97–127Google Scholar
  192. Vergés A, Tomas F, Cebrian E et al (2014) Tropical rabbitfish and the deforestation of a warming temperate sea. J Ecol 102(6):1518–1527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Williams SL, Davidson IC, Pasari JR et al (2013) Managing multiple vectors for marine invasions in an increasingly connected world. Bioscience 63(12):952–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Zenetos A, Pancucci-Papadopoulou M, Zogaris S et al (2009) Aquatic alien species in Greece (2009): tracking sources, patterns and effects on the ecosystem. J Biol Res (Thessalon) 12:135–172Google Scholar
  195. Zenetos A, Apostolopoulos G, Crocetta F (2016) Aquaria kept marine fish species possibly released in the Mediterranean Sea: first confirmation of intentional release in the wild. Acta Icht Pisc 46(3):255–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Zolotarev V (1996) The Black Sea ecosystem changes related to the introduction of new mollusc species. Mar Ecol 17(1–3):227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Žuljević A, Thibaut T, Despalatović M et al (2011) Invasive alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea makes a strong impact on the Mediterranean sponge Sarcotragus spinosulus. Biol Invasions 13(10):2303–2308CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bella S. Galil
    • 1
    Email author
  • Agnese Marchini
    • 2
  • Anna Occhipinti-Ambrogi
    • 2
  1. 1.The Steinhardt Museum of Natural History, Tel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of PaviaPaviaItaly

Personalised recommendations