Molecular Cytology Applications on Gynecological Cytology

  • Francesca CarozziEmail author
  • Giovanni Negri
  • Cristina Sani


In the last years, several new molecular techniques were introduced into cytology laboratories. The principal aim of molecular cytology tests applied to gynecology specimens is to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the Pap or HPV test and to personalize the management of women with cervical abnormalities. The use of biomarkers in cervical cytology has some potential advantages compared with histology. The cytological sampling can be easily obtained noninvasively during routine testing, while histological sampling requires colposcopy. The introduction of liquid-based samples in gynecological cytology (LBC) has strongly facilitated the development and the application of molecular techniques. LBC allows the use of biomarkers and molecular tests on the residual cellularity, adding valuable molecular informations to cell morphology potentially combining in one sample diagnosis and research. Most of these techniques are based on the detection of HPV or surrogate markers of the viral oncogenic activity. Their current and future applications will be critically analyzed.


Pap test HPV Cervical cancer Biomarkers Molecular biology 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesca Carozzi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Giovanni Negri
    • 2
  • Cristina Sani
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for cancer research, prevention and clinical network, Cancer Prevention Laboratory, HPV Laboratory and Molecular Oncology UnitFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Department of PathologyCentral Hospital BolzanoBolzanoItaly

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