Advertisement

Basal Cell Carcinoma

  • Shauna Higgins
  • Maggie Chow
  • Ashley Wysong
Chapter

Abstract

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in the United States. BCC is categorized by its clinical appearance and histology. The tumor subtype, anatomical location and patient’s health are factored into the treatment choice. Multiple treatment options exist with varying efficacy. Post-treatment, patient monitoring is important for possible recurrence and for the development of new skin cancers.

Keywords

Basal cell carcinoma Nonmelanoma skin cancer Nodular BCC Superficial BCC Morpheaform BCC Cystic BCC Basosquamous Micronodular BCC Infiltrative BCC Pigmented BCC Adenoid BCC Radiation Mohs micrographic surgery Cryosurgery Laser therapy Photodynamic therapy Chemotherapy Retinoids Interferon 

References

  1. 1.
    Verkouteren JA, et al. Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma: scholarly review. Br J Dermatol. 2017;177:359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wysong A, Aasi SZ, Tang JY. Update on metastatic basal cell carcinoma: a summary of published cases from 1981 through 2011. JAMA Dermatol. 2013;149(5):615–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang Y, et al. Body mass index, height and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol. 2017;46:66–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wu S, et al. Cumulative ultraviolet radiation flux in adulthood and risk of incident skin cancers in women. Br J Cancer. 2014;110(7):1855–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cockerell CJ, Tan KT, Carucci J, Tierney E, Lang P, Maize JC Sr, Rigel D. Basal cell carcinoma. In: Cancer of the skin. Edinburgh: Elsevier Inc; 2011. p. 99–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang GY, et al. Differing tumor-suppressor functions of Arf and p53 in murine basal cell carcinoma initiation and progression. Oncogene. 2017;36(26):3772–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chaudhary SC, et al. Naproxen inhibits UVB-induced basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma development in Ptch1+/− /SKH-1 hairless mice. Photochem Photobiol. 2017;93:1016.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fan Z, et al. A missense mutation in PTCH2 underlies dominantly inherited NBCCS in a Chinese family. J Med Genet. 2008;45(5):303–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kijima C, et al. Two cases of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome associated with meningioma caused by a PTCH1 or SUFU germline mutation. Familial Cancer. 2012;11(4):565–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Scheinfeld N, et al. Identification of a recurrent mutation in the CYLD gene in Brooke-Spiegler syndrome. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2003;28(5):539–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berlin NL, et al. Family history of skin cancer is associated with early-onset basal cell carcinoma independent of MC1R genotype. Cancer Epidemiol. 2015;39(6):1078–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Levine JA, et al. The indoor UV tanning industry: a review of skin cancer risk, health benefit claims, and regulation. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;53(6):1038–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Narala S, Cohen PR. Basal cell carcinoma of the umbilicus: a comprehensive literature review. Cureus. 2016;8(9):e770.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Loh TY, Rubin AG, Jiang SI. Basal cell carcinoma of the dorsal foot: an update and comprehensive review of the literature. Dermatol Surg. 2017;43(1):32–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alsaedi M, Shoimer I, Kurwa HA. Basal cell carcinoma of the nipple-areola complex. Dermatol Surg. 2017;43(1):142–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Watson GA, et al. An unusual case of basal cell carcinoma of the vulva with lung metastases. Gynecol Oncol Rep. 2016;18:32–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Loh T, Rubin AG, Brian Jiang SI. Management of mucosal basal cell carcinoma of the lip: an update and comprehensive review of the literature. Dermatol Surg. 2016;42(12):1313–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hone NL, Grandhi R, Ingraffea AA. Basal cell carcinoma on the sole: an easily missed cancer. Case Rep Dermatol. 2016;8(3):283–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hoashi T, et al. A case of penile basal cell carcinoma reconstructed by scrotal myofasciocutaneous flap. Dermatol Ther. 2016;29(5):349–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hernandez-Aragues I, Baniandres-Rodriguez O. Basal cell carcinoma of the scrotum. Actas Urol Esp. 2016;40(9):592–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Buljan M, et al. Variations in clinical presentation of basal cell carcinoma. Acta Clin Croat. 2008;47(1):25–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sarkar S, et al. Neglected basal cell carcinoma on scalp. Indian J Dermatol. 2016;61(1):85–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mehta KS, et al. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma: a biological continuum of Basal cell carcinoma? Case Rep Dermatol Med. 2012;2012:157187.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brodell RT, Wagamon K. The persistent nonhealing ulcer. Could it be basal cell carcinoma? Postgrad Med. 2001;109(1):29–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lim KR, et al. Basal cell carcinoma presenting as a hypertrophic scar. Arch Plast Surg. 2013;40(3):289–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nadiminti U, Rakkhit T, Washington C. Morpheaform basal cell carcinoma in African Americans. Dermatol Surg. 2004;30(12 Pt 2):1550–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Park JY, et al. A rare dermoscopic pattern of nodular basal cell carcinoma with amyloid deposition. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;76(2s1):S55–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Diluvio L, Bavetta M, Di Prete M, Orlandi A, Bianchi L, and Campione E. Dermoscopic monitoring of efficacy of ingenol mebutate in the treatment of pigmented and non-pigmented basal cell carcinomas. Dermatologic Therapy 2017;30:e12438. doi: 10.1111/dth.12438. (electronic publication)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Arpaia N, et al. Vascular patterns in cutaneous ulcerated basal cell carcinoma: a retrospective blinded study including dermoscopy. Acta Derm Venereol. 2017;97:612.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hirofuji A, et al. Superficial type of multiple basal cell carcinomas: detailed comparative study of its dermoscopic and histopathological findings. J Skin Cancer. 2011;2011:385465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mary Nolen VB, King J, Bryn N, Morin LK. Nonmelanoma skin cancer: part 1. J Dermatol Nurses Assoc. 2011;3(5):260–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yoneta A, et al. A case of cystic basal cell carcinoma which shows a homogenous blue/black area under Dermatoscopy. J Skin Cancer. 2011;2011:450472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lima NL, et al. Basosquamous carcinoma: histopathological features. Indian J Dermatol. 2012;57(5):382–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Akay BN, et al. Basosquamous carcinoma: dermoscopic clues to diagnosis. J Dermatol. 2016;44:127–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tan CZ, Rieger KE, Sarin KY. Basosquamous carcinoma: controversy, advances, and future directions. Dermatol Surg. 2017;43(1):23–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tchernev G, et al. Multiple nonsyndromic acquired basal cell carcinomas : Uncommon clinical presentation in a Bulgarian patient. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2017;167:134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hendrix JD Jr, Parlette HL. Duplicitous growth of infiltrative basal cell carcinoma: analysis of clinically undetected tumor extent in a paired case-control study. Dermatol Surg. 1996;22(6):535–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Coleman CI, Wine-Lee L, James WD. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma: uncommon presentation in blue-eyed patients. JAMA Dermatol. 2013;149(8):995–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Alcantara-Reifs CM, et al. Linear basal cell carcinoma: report of three cases with dermoscopic findings. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2016;82(6):708–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yamaguchi Y, et al. A case of linear basal cell carcinoma: evaluation of proliferative activity by immunohistochemical staining of PCTAIRE1 and p27. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2017;31:e359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Yazdani Abyaneh MA, et al. Giant basal cell carcinomas express neuroactive mediators and show a high growth rate: a case-control study and meta-analysis of etiopathogenic and prognostic factors. Am J Dermatopathol. 2017;39(3):189–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bellahammou K, et al. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report. Pan Afr Med J. 2016;24:157.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kornreich DA, Lee JB. White network in fibroepithelioma of Pinkus. JAAD Case Rep. 2016;2(5):400–2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gomez-Martin I, et al. Pigmented fibroepithelioma of Pinkus: a potential dermoscopic simulator of malignant melanoma. J Dermatol. 2017;44(5):542–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dongre AM, et al. Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus in continuity with nodular basal cell carcinoma: a rare presentation. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2016;7(4):285–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Crowson AN. Basal cell carcinoma: biology, morphology and clinical implications. Mod Pathol. 2006;19(Suppl 2):S127–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Saxena K, et al. Adenoid basal cell carcinoma: a rare facet of basal cell carcinoma. BMJ Case Rep. 2016;2016.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2015-214166.
  48. 48.
    Murkey N, et al. Adenoid variant of basal cell carcinoma: a case report with a glance at biological behavior of the tumor. Indian J Dermatol. 2017;62(1):103–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Anjum N, et al. Follicular proliferation or basal cell carcinoma? The first prospective UK study of this histological challenge during Mohs Surgery. Br J Dermatol. 2017;177(2):549–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Viera M, et al. A new look at fibroepithelioma of pinkus: features on confocal microscopy. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2008;1(2):42–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hasbun Acuna P, et al. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma. Medwave. 2016;16(11):e6805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nagi R, Sahu S, Agarwal N. Unusual presentation of pigmented basal cell carcinoma of face: surgical challenge. J Clin Diagn Res. 2016;10(7):Zj06–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Christian MM, et al. A correlation of alpha-smooth muscle actin and invasion in micronodular basal cell carcinoma. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27(5):441–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bard RL. High-frequency ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of skin cancer. Dermatol Clin. 2017;35(4):505–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hong H, Sun J, Cai W. Anatomical and molecular imaging of skin cancer. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2008;1:1–17.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zeitouni NC, et al. Preoperative ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of nonmelanoma skin cancers. Dermatol Surg. 2015;41(4):525–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    MacFarlane D, et al. The role of imaging in the management of patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer: diagnostic modalities and applications. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;76(4):579–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Belkin DA, Wysong A. Radiographic imaging for skin cancer. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2016;35(1):42–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Humphreys TR, et al. The role of imaging in the management of patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer: when is imaging necessary? J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;76(4):591–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Duncan JR, Carr D, Kaffenberger BH. The utility of positron emission tomography with and without computed tomography in patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;75(1):186–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lubeek SF, Arnold WP. A retrospective study on the effectiveness of curettage and electrodesiccation for clinically suspected primary nodular basal cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol. 2016;175(5):1097–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Woldow AB, Melvin ME. Early detection of desiccation and curettage failure in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. Dermatology. 2016;232:696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lara F, Santamaria JR, Garbers LE. Recurrence rate of basal cell carcinoma with positive histopathological margins and related risk factors. An Bras Dermatol. 2017;92(1):58–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sexton M, Jones DB, Maloney ME. Histologic pattern analysis of basal cell carcinoma. Study of a series of 1039 consecutive neoplasms. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990;23(6 Pt 1):1118–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gulleth Y, et al. What is the best surgical margin for a basal cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis of the literature. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;126(4):1222–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Thomas DJ, King AR, Peat BG. Excision margins for nonmelanotic skin cancer. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003;112(1):57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sin CW, Barua A, Cook A. Recurrence rates of periocular basal cell carcinoma following Mohs micrographic surgery: a retrospective study. Int J Dermatol. 2016;55(9):1044–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wolfe CM, Cognetta AB Jr. Radiation therapy (RT) for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), a cost comparison: clarifying misconceptions. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;75(3):654–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    McGregor S, Minni J, Herold D. Superficial radiation therapy for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancers. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2015;8(12):12–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Duinkerken CW, et al. Orthovoltage X-rays for postoperative treatment of resected basal cell carcinoma in the head and neck area. J Cutan Med Surg. 2017;21(3):243–9.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1203475416687268.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Vuong W, Lin J, Wei RL. Palliative radiotherapy for skin malignancies. Ann Palliat Med. 2017;6(2):165–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Piccinno R, et al. Dermatologic radiotherapy in the treatment of extensive basal cell carcinomas: a retrospective study. J Dermatolog Treat. 2017;28(5):1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Avril MF, et al. Basal cell carcinoma of the face: surgery or radiotherapy? Results of a randomized study. Br J Cancer. 1997;76(1):100–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zouboulis CC. Cryosurgery in dermatology. Hautarzt. 2015;66(11):834–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Erratum. Could cryosurgery be an alternative treatment for basal cell carcinoma of the vulva?: Erratum. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2015;6(4):314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Har-Shai Y, et al. Intralesional cryosurgery for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the lower extremities in elderly subjects: a feasibility study. Int J Dermatol. 2016;55(3):342–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Weshahy AH, et al. The efficacy of intralesional cryosurgery in the treatment of small- and medium-sized basal cell carcinoma: a pilot study. J Dermatolog Treat. 2015;26(2):147–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gaitanis G, Kalogeropoulos CD, Bassukas ID. Cryosurgery during Imiquimod (Immunocryosurgery) for periocular basal cell carcinomas: an efficacious minimally invasive treatment alternative. Dermatology. 2016;232(1):17–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lanoue J, Goldenberg G. Basal cell carcinoma: a comprehensive review of existing and emerging nonsurgical therapies. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2016;9(5):26–36.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Soleymani T, Abrouk M, Kelly KM. An analysis of laser therapy for the treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Dermatol Surg. 2017;43(5):615–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ortiz AE, Anderson RR, Avram MM. 1064 nm long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser treatment of basal cell carcinoma. Lasers Surg Med. 2015;47(2):106–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Konnikov N, et al. Pulsed dye laser as a novel non-surgical treatment for basal cell carcinomas: response and follow up 12-21 months after treatment. Lasers Surg Med. 2011;43(2):72–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Carija A, et al. Single treatment of low-risk basal cell carcinomas with pulsed dye laser-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDL-PDT) compared with photodynamic therapy (PDT): a controlled, investigator-blinded, intra-individual prospective study. Photodiagn Photodyn Ther. 2016;16:60–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kessels JP, et al. Ambulatory photodynamic therapy for superficial basal cell carcinoma: an effective light source? Acta Derm Venereol. 2017;97:649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Karabulut GO, et al. Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of large nodular basal cell carcinoma at the medial canthal area. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65(1):48–51.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yang X, Dinehart MS. Triple hedgehog pathway inhibition for basal cell carcinoma. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2017;10(4):47–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Williams HC, et al. Surgery versus 5% Imiquimod for nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma: 5-year results of the SINS randomized controlled trial. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137(3):614–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Singal A, et al. Facial basal cell carcinoma treated with topical 5% Imiquimod cream with Dermoscopic evaluation. J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2016;9(2):122–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Urech M, et al. Dermoscopic ulceration is a predictor of basal cell carcinoma response to Imiquimod: a retrospective study. Acta Derm Venereol. 2017;97(1):117–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Jung YS, et al. Superficial basal cell carcinoma treated with two cycles of ingenol mebutate gel 0.015. Ann Dermatol. 2016;28(6):796–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Izzi S, et al. Successfully treated superficial basal cell carcinomas with ingenol mebutate 0.05% gel: report of twenty cases. Dermatol Ther. 2016;29(6):470–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bettencourt MS. Treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma with ingenol mebutate gel, 0.05%. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2016;9:205–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wong Y, Low JA, Chio MT. Role of topical tranexamic acid in hemostasis of locally advanced basal cell carcinoma. JAAD Case Rep. 2016;2(2):162–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ker K, Beecher D, Roberts I. Topical application of tranexamic acid for the reduction of bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(7):CD010562.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Micali G, et al. Topical pharmacotherapy for skin cancer: part I. Pharmacology. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;70(6):965.e1–12; quiz 977–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Chang J, et al. Association between programmed death ligand 1 expression in patients with basal cell carcinomas and the number of treatment modalities. JAMA Dermatol. 2017;153:285.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Chen L, Silapunt S, Migden MR. Sonidegib for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma: a comprehensive review of sonidegib and the BOLT trial with 12-month update. Future Oncol. 2016;12(18):2095–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Cox KF, Margo CE. Role of vismodegib in the management of advanced periocular basal cell carcinoma. Cancer Control. 2016;23(2):133–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Falchook GS, et al. Responses of metastatic basal cell and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas to anti-PD1 monoclonal antibody REGN2810. J Immunother Cancer. 2016;4:70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lacouture ME, et al. Characterization and management of hedgehog pathway inhibitor-related adverse events in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma. Oncologist. 2016;21(10):1218–29.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    McGrane J, Carswell S, Talbot T. Metastatic spinal cord compression from basal cell carcinoma of the skin treated with surgical decompression and vismodegib: case report and review of hedgehog signalling pathway inhibition in advanced basal cell carcinoma. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2017;42(1):80–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fife D, et al. Vismodegib therapy for basal cell carcinoma in an 8-year-old Chinese boy with xeroderma pigmentosum. Pediatr Dermatol. 2017;34(2):163–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Fife K, et al. Managing adverse events associated with vismodegib in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. Future Oncol. 2017;13(2):175–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Guo D, Kossintseva I, Leitenberger J. Neoadjuvant vismodegib before Mohs: lack of tissue sparing and squamous differentiation of basal cell carcinoma in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Dermatol Surg. 2016;42(6):780–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Kwon GP, et al. Update to an open-label clinical trial of vismodegib as neoadjuvant before surgery for high-risk basal cell carcinoma (BCC). J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016;75(1):213–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lima JP. Statistical concerns on vismodegib for basal cell carcinoma meta-analysis. JAMA Dermatol. 2017;153:337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Paulsen JF, et al. Vismodegib and surgery combined – effective treatment of locally advanced basal cell carcinoma. Acta Oncol. 2016;55(12):1492–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Casey D, et al. FDA approval summary: sonidegib for locally advanced basal cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2017;23:2377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Tibes R. Sonidegib phosphate: new approval for basal cell carcinoma. Drugs Today (Barc). 2016;52(5):295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Yin VT, Esmaeli B. Targeting the hedgehog pathway for locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma. Curr Pharm Des. 2017;23(4):655–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Silapunt S, Chen L, Migden MR. Hedgehog pathway inhibition in advanced basal cell carcinoma: latest evidence and clinical usefulness. Ther Adv Med Oncol. 2016;8(5):375–82.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ramelyte E, Amann VC, Dummer R. Sonidegib for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2016;17(14):1963–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Collier NJ, Ali FR, Lear JT. The safety and efficacy of sonidegib for the treatment of locally advanced basal cell carcinoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2016;16(10):1011–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Dreno B, et al. Two intermittent vismodegib dosing regimens in patients with multiple basal-cell carcinomas (MIKIE): a randomised, regimen-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2017;18(3):404–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Yonjan Lama I, Wharton S. Comment Re: ‘Treatment of basal cell carcinoma with surgical excision and perilesional interferon-alpha’. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2015;68(6):877–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wettstein R, et al. Treatment of basal cell carcinoma with surgical excision and perilesional interferon-alpha. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2013;66(7):912–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations