Advertisement

Expatriation Knowledge Management: The Role of Openness to Change and Work Engagement

  • Silveli Cristo-AndradeEmail author
  • Bruno Felix
  • Emerson Wagner Mainardes
Chapter
Part of the Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management book series (ITKM)

Abstract

This study addresses the relevant aspect when a company chooses the strategy to internationalize. When choosing internationalization, it is crucial for companies to be more careful in selecting professionals that are able to disseminate the firm’s knowledge in international subsidiaries. Despite the expatriation of employees and the internationalization itself being singled out as important competitive advantages, the high cost of training, sending, maintaining, and repatriating an expatriate professional has become a challenge for companies. Considering that the individual’s openness to change can favor expatriation success, the objective of this study is to propose a theoretical model that connects the openness to change personality trait as the antecedent to the intention of an individual to be expatriated or also an antecedent to leave the company. The theoretical model also considers the moderator role of work engagement in both relationships. In the development of the theoretical model, the associations between the four constructs were theoretically identified: openness to change, intention to be expatriated, intention to leave the company, and work engagement, in the form of assumptions. In particular the theoretical model focuses on the moderating role that work engagement can provide for these relationships. The proposed model can be a guideline for knowledge management practices in international organizations.

Keywords

Knowledge management Expatriation Openness to change Work engagement International mission 

References

  1. Andrade, J. M. (2008). Evidências de validade do inventário dos cinco grandes fatores de personalidade para o Brasil. Tese de doutorado, Psicologia Social, do Trabalho e das Organizações. Brasil: Universidade de Brasília, Brasília.Google Scholar
  2. Araújo, B. F. V. B., Bilsky, W., & Moreira, L. M. C. O. (2012). Valores pessoais como antecedentes da adaptação transcultural de expatriados. RAM: Revista de Administração Mackenzie, 13(3), 69–95.Google Scholar
  3. Araújo, B. F. V. B., Texeira, M. L. M., Cruz, P. B., & Malini, E. (2012). Adaptação de expatriados organizacionais e voluntários: similaridades e diferenças no contexto brasileiro. Revista de Administração da Universidade de São Paulo, 47(4), 555–570.Google Scholar
  4. Bakker, A. B., & Bal, M. P. (2010). Weekly work engagement and performance: A study among starting teachers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83(1), 189–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2008). Towards a model of work engagement. Career development international, 13(3), 209–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baruch, Y., & Altman, Y. (2002). Expatriation and repatriation in MNCs: A taxonomy. Human Resource Management, 41(2), 239–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bassy, M. (2002). Motivation and work-Investigation and analysis of motivation factors at work. PhD Thesis, Department of Management and Economics, Linköping University, Swedish. Retrieved Nov 12, 2016, from http://www.divaportal.org/smash/get/diva2:17451/ fulltext01
  8. BGRS - Brookfield Global Relocation Services. (2016). Global mobility trends. USA: Brookfield global relocation services. Retrieved Nov 10, 2016, from http://globalmobilitytrends.brookfieldgrs.com/
  9. Bhatnagar, J. (2012). Management of innovation: Role of psychological empowerment, work engagement and turnover intention in the Indian context. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(5), 928–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Black, J. S., Gregersen, H. B., & Mendenhall, M. E. (1992). Toward a theoretical framework of repatriation adjustment. Journal of International Business Studies, 23(4), 737–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Black, J. S., Mendenhall, M., & Oddou, G. (1991). Toward a comprehensive model of international adjustment: An integration of multiple theoretical perspectives. Academy of Management Review, 16(2), 291–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bobowik, M., Basabe, N., Páez, D., Jiménez, A., & Bilbao, M. A. (2011). Personal values and Well-being among Europeans, Spanish natives and immigrants to Spain: Does the culture matter? Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(3), 401–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bolino, M. C. (2007). Expatriate assignments and intra-organizational career success: Implications for individuals and organizations. Journal of International Business Studies, 38(5), 819–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Caligiuri, P. M. (2000). Selecting expatriates for personality characteristics: A moderating effect of personality on the relationship between host national contact and cross-cultural adjustment. MIR: Management International Review, 40(1), 61–80.Google Scholar
  15. Caligiuri, P. M. & Lazarova, M. (2001). Strategic repatriation policies to enhance global leadership development. Developing global business leaders: Policies, processes, and innovations (pp. 243–256). Retrieved Oct 23, 2016, from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Paula_Caligiuri/publication/234021410_Strategic_Repatriation_Policies_to_Enhance_Global_Leadership_Development/links/56321fc908ae3de9381ef89b.pdf
  16. Chen, J.-H., & Lin, J.-Z. (2014). Prediction rules of the employees. Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 22(2), 116–124.Google Scholar
  17. Cieciuch, J., & Davidov, E. (2012). A comparison of the invariance properties of the PVQ-40 and the PVQ-21 to measure human values across German and Polish Samples. Survey Research Methods, 6(1), 37–48.Google Scholar
  18. Dickmann, M., Doherty, N., Mills, T., & Brewster, C. (2008). Why do they go? Individual and corporate perspectives on the factors influencing the decision to accept an international assignment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(4), 731–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Engle, R. L., Schlägel, C., Dimitriadi, N., Tatoglu, E., & Ljubica, J. (2015). The intention to become an expatriate: A multinational application of the theory of planned behaviour. European Journal of International Management, 9(1), 108–137.Google Scholar
  20. Freitas, M. E. (2011). Expatriação Profissional: o desafio interdependente para empresas e indivíduos. Gestão e Sociedade, 4(9), 689–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gallon, S., Scheffer, A. B. B., Bitencourt, B. M. & Gallon, I. (2014). Processo de expatriação: além da experiência internacional. Gestão Contemporânea, 16(july/dec). Retrieved Oct 20, 2016, from http://seer4.fapa.com.br/index.php/arquivo/article/viewFile/355 /161
  22. González, J. M. R., & Oliveira, J. A. (2011). Os efeitos da expatriação sobre a identidade: estudo de caso. Cadernos EBAPE. BR, 9(4), 1122–1135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Herman, J. L., & Tetrick, L. E. (2009). Problem-focused versus emotion-focused coping strategies and repatriation adjustment. Human Resource Management, 48(1), 69–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Judge, T. A., & Zapata, C. P. (2015). The person–situation debate revisited: Effect of situation strength and trait activation on the validity of the Big Five personality traits in predicting job performance. Academy of Management Journal, 58(4), 1149–1179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kubo, E. K. M., & Braga, B. M. (2013). Ajustamento intercultural de executivos japoneses expatriados no Brasil: um estudo empírico. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 53(3), 243–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kulkarni, M., Lengnick-Hall, M. L., & Valk, R. (2010). Employee perceptions of repatriation in an emerging economy: The Indian experience. Human Resource Management, 49(3), 531–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Loes, C. (2015). Improving processes for expatriate selection. Business Studies Journal, 7(2), 99–112.Google Scholar
  28. Matthews, G., Deary, I. J., & Whiteman, M. C. (2003). Personality traits (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved Feb 16, 2017, from http://content.schweitzeronline.de/static/catalog_manager/live/media_files/representation/zd_std_orig__zd_schw_orig/002/194/905/9780521831079_content_pdf_1.pdf CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Medeiros, C. A. F., Albuquerque, L. G., Marques, G. M., & Siqueira, M. (2005). Um estudo exploratório dos múltiplos componentes do comprometimento organizacional (43a ed.). REAd: Revista Eletrônica de Administração, 11(1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  30. Ones, D. S., & Viswesvaran, C. (1999). Relative importance of personality dimensions for expatriate selection: A policy capturing study. Human Performance, 12(3–4), 275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pereira, N. A. F., Pimentel, R., & Kato, H. T. (2005). Expatriação e estratégia internacional: o papel da família como fator de equilíbrio na adaptação do expatriado. RAC-Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 9(4), 53–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Qadeer, F., Ahmad, A., Hameed, I., & Mahmood, S. (2016). Linking passion to organizational citizenship behavior and employee performance: The mediating role of work engagement. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 10(2), 316–334.Google Scholar
  33. Remhof, S., Gunkel, M., & Schlägel, C. (2014). Goodbye Germany! The influence of personality and cognitive factors on the intention to work abroad. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(16), 2319–2343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sagie, A., Elizur, D., & Yamauchi, H. (1996). The structure and strength of achievement motivation: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17(5), 431–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Santos, G. A. (2015). A motivação dos expatriados e o seu bem-estar no trabalho: estudo exploratório numa empresa de construção em África. Dissertação de mestrado Integrado em Psicologia. Lisboa: Universidade de Lisboa.Google Scholar
  36. Schaufeli, W. B. & Bakker, A. B. (2003). UWES – Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. Preliminary manual. Occupational health psychology unit. Utrecht University. Retrieved Nov 12, 2016, from http://www.wilmarschaufeli.nl/publications/Schaufeli/Test%20Manuals/Test_manual_UWES_Brazil.pdf
  37. Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire a cross-national study. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 66(4), 701–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shaffer, M. A., Kraimer, M. L., Chen, Y. P., & Bolino, M. C. (2012). Choices, challenges, and career consequences of global work experiences: A review and future agenda. Journal of Management, 38(4), 1282–1327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shen, Y., & Hall, D. T. T. (2009). When expatriates explore other options: Retaining talent through greater job embeddedness and repatriation adjustment. Human Resource Management, 48(5), 793–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Spohr, N. (2011). O processo repatriação na visão de profissionais repatriados brasileiros. Dissertação de mestrado em Administração de Empresas. São Paulo: Fundação Getúlio Vargas.Google Scholar
  43. Stahl, G. K., Chua, C. H., Caligiuri, P., Cerdin, J. L., & Taniguchi, M. (2009). Predictors of turnover intentions in learning-driven and demand-driven international assignments: The role of repatriation concerns, satisfaction with company support, and perceived career advancement opportunities. Human Resource Management, 48(1), 89–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tharenou, P., & Caulfield, N. (2010). Will I stay or will I go? Explaining repatriation by self-initiated expatriates. Academy of Management Journal, 53(5), 1009–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Thoresen, C., Bradley, J. C., Bliese, P. D., & Thoresen, J. D. (2004). The big five personality traits and individual job performance growth trajectories in maintenance and transitional job stages. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 835–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. United Nations. (2016). International migration report 2015. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved Nov 12, 2016, from http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/publications/migrationreport/docs/MigrationReport2015.pdf
  47. Vance, C. M., & Mcnulty, Y. (2014). Why and how women and men acquire global career experience: A study of American expatriates in Europe. International Studies of Management & Organization, 44(2), 34–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vianna, N. P., & Souza, Y. S. (2009). Uma análise sobre os processos de expatriação e repatriação em organizações brasileiras. Revista Base Administração e Contabilidade da UNISINOS, 6(4), 340–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vidal, M. E. S., Valle, R. S., & Aragón, M. I. B. (2008). International workers' satisfaction with the repatriation process. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19(9), 1683–1702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silveli Cristo-Andrade
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bruno Felix
    • 2
  • Emerson Wagner Mainardes
    • 2
  1. 1.PhD Student in Management at University of Beira InteriorCovilhãPortugal
  2. 2.Departament of ManagementFUCAPE Business SchoolVitória/ESBrazil

Personalised recommendations