The Third Dimension in Cell Culture: From 2D to 3D Culture Formats
Traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture does not represent the natural environment cells experience in their respective tissue or organ. In contrast, the cultivation of cells in a three-dimensional (3D) environment can help to generate a physiologic environment. This chapter describes the fundamental biological and technological differences of 2D to 3D cultivation and gives an overview on important 3D cell culture techniques. Different approaches for matrix-free and matrix-based cell culture as well as less conventional 3D cell culture approaches are described and discussed. Furthermore, the application of 3D cell culture in the field of tissue engineering and in vitro test models is presented.
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